Sound as Energy
Energy comes in many forms. One of those is sound energy, which manifests as vibration. For example, we can hear a loud noise because receptor cells in our ears translate vibrations from sound energy into brain-bound electrical signals. Most sound waves lie outside our range of “hearing,” but produce energy nonetheless. In labs, this ultrasonic energy is used to agitate particles for the purpose of cleaning, mixing solutions, increasing dissolution rate, or to evaporate dissolved gasses from liquids.
Sound travels through air, liquids and solids. The less dense the medium, and the closer the source, the easier the sound waves move. Sound “frequency” is a measure of particle vibration: higher frequencies cause more vibration, and as you can imagine, carry greater strength. Sonicators used in labs are high-frequency instruments that operate at levels above what humans can hear. These ultrasonic waves ar
In a critical environment, FDA, ISO, and cGMP requirements rule! Cleanliness relies considerably upon fan/filter units (FFUs), and a poorly designed FFU can mean the difference between a clean space and a non-compliant room. Some commercial FFUs appear to meet minimum standards of cleanliness but, by failing to create uniformity in velocity and flow, instead contribute to an unclean work place and negate the clean environment you’ve worked so hard to create.
Swirling air causes minute particles to become suspended rather than to flow down and out of the laminar flow system. Second-pass air c
Activated charcoal is highly porous carbon used in air filters to capture solvent fumes and organic compounds by adsorption of molecules (van der Waals forces). Unlike particle filters, which rely on micro-pores to capture solid contaminants suspended in air, Terra’s coconut-shell based charcoal filters remove a wide range of chemical fumes and odors common to laboratories and manufacturing environments. To understand chemical vapor filtration, let’s first focus on what having a carbon-based filter means.
Did you know…
Traditional charcoal is a common commodity, found in everyday-homes (cooking barbecues, vacuum cleaners, etc.). But did you know your water filter may contain activated carbon? Drinking water is often filtered through activated charcoal to remove certain toxins, and
Laboratory ovens are used in a wide range of applications in industries such as biotech, pharmaceuticals and materials manufacturing. These industries often require the process of baking, curing, annealing and drying materials of varying chemical and physical compositions. Many of these process applications are unique in their end-result and require assorted types of lab ovens.
Baking heats the substance without dehumidification. Pharmaceutical, manufacturing a
USP Compliance of Pharmaceutical Labs
Absorption spectroscopy is an important analytical chemistry technique used in pharmaceutical analysis. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) defines absorption spectroscopy as “the measurement of an interaction between electromagnetic radiation and the chemicals, or atoms, of a chemical substance.” To ensure the safety, quality and efficacy of compounds being produced, USP has developed standards and guidelines that must be observed by the pharmaceutical industry.
To meet these guidelines, labs must rigorously follow USP Reference Standards when performing absorption spectroscopy. From a quality control standpoint, absorption spectroscopy assists with compliance in detecting chemical elements within a sample. Instruments with data-transfer capabilities provide traceable reporting, compliant with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). There are two popular absorption spectroscopy techniques used in pharma