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Autoclaves & Labware Washers

Autoclaves & Labware Washers

Autoclaves and labware washers disinfect liquids, media, instruments, and glassware


Analytical, precision and top-loading balances and accessories by Sartorius. Select models available for immediate shipment.Balance Features Overview
Sartorius laboratory balacnes

Application-Specific FeaturesVoltageFormatWeighing Pan SizeWeighing CapacityBalance TypeSartorius Entris IISartorius PractumSartorius QuintixSartorius SecuraSartorius Cubis II

Uses for Balances in Laboratories

Lab balances and scales are offered in a variety of designs to measure sample mass, density, and moisture content of solids, liquids, and powders. While a scale determines the mass of a sample, a balance is designed to compare the mass of multiple samples. Balances and scales are offered in several configurations: analytical, precision, top-loading, front-loading, high-capacity and moisture analysis.

What types of Balances are Used in a Laboratory?

Certain balances offer additional functionality, such as data traceability (for 21CFR Part 11 compliance), integration with external devices (such as a printer, computer, or barcode reader), pipette calibration, and sample protection (such as a draft shield) for installation into a laminar flow hood or ISO-rated cleanroom.

A - Balance Type
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A1 - Analytical Balances

Analytical balances are optimal for most standard lab weighing operations, such as density determination, comparative mass analysis and dynamic weighing. Analytical balances measure samples to very tight tolerances, yielding readabilities down to 0.0001 grams. As analytical scales are sensitive to air current and temperature changes, most models include a draft shield to maintain a controlled measuring environment.

Shop Analytics Balances

A2 - Precision Balances

Precision balances are an economical alternative to analytical balances. While precision scales support higher weight capacities than analytical models, they do not yield similar tolerances (readabilities down to 0.001 grams). Precision scales produce stable readings within environments experiencing temperature and humidity fluctuations.

Shop Precision Balances

A3 - High-Capacity Balances

High-capacity balances are designed to weigh bulk powders, animals, and heavy storage containers in production environments. While analytical and precision balances accommodate weight loads of 300 grams and 600 grams respectively, high-capacity balances can measure loads up to 34,000 grams.

Shop High-Capacity Balances

A4 - Micro Balances

Microbalances are designed to weigh small samples (up to 6 grams) at industry-leading tolerances (readabilities down to 0.0000001 grams). Microbalances are extremely sensitive to changes in atmospheric conditions and require recalibration on a semi-annual basis.

B - Scale and Balance Weighing Capacity
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Laboratory balances offer a broad range of weighing capacities, from ultra-micro scales designed to measure down to the milligram and microgram levels, to high-capacity balances capable of measuring weights up to 34,000 grams. Electronic scales provide readouts in dozens of different units, including grams, milligrams, kilograms, pounds, ounces and grains.

C - Balance Weighing Pan Size
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Laboratory balances and scales include weighing pans to accommodate a variety of sample types, including powders, liquids, solids and living organisms. Smaller, round pans are optimal for weighing low quantities of aqueous samples or powders, while larger, square pans are ideal for weighing solids or tare vessels (such as weight buckets).

D - Balancing Loading and Format
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D1 - Front-Loading Balances

Front-loading balances include draft shields to protect the sample from air movement and temperature fluctuations. Ionizer draft shields dissipate static charges to protect fine powders from aggregating to draft shield walls.

D2 - Top-Loading Balances

Top-loading balances are designed without a draft shield to provide easy access to the weighing pan. Top-loading scales are optimal for weighing bulky solids, animals, or large containers that require unobstructed access to the weighing pan.

F - Application-Specific Features
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F1 - Balance Draft Shields

Sartorius Modular Cubis II Micro and Ultra-Micro Balances are available with glass or stainless steel draft shields. Draft shields offer protection for fine powders or aqueous samples sensitive to air currents or static charges. Common draft shields provide access to the weighing pan from the front, top and sides.

F2 - LIMS Integration

Sartorius Quintix balances offer data export programs compatible with a variety of software packages, including Microsoft Office and LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System), to support sample lot traceability, workflow efficiency, and event reporting.

F3 - Auto Calibration of Balances

Sartorius Secura and Quintix balances include isoCAL software to support automatic or user-determined instrument recalibration routines at monthly intervals or after balance relocation.

F4 - USP Compliance

Sartorius Cubis II (PDF), Quintix, and Secura balances automatically log all recorded measurements for daily export and review per USP <797> and <800> guidelines.

F5 - 21CFR Part 11 Compliance

The Sartorius Cubis II balance includes end-to-end data integrity, safe data transfer, electronic signatures for controlled data access, and audit trailing for 21CFR Part 11 compliance.

Buy Online: Cubis II Ultra-Micro and Microbalances by Sartorius

Where Can I Find a Trusted Supplier of Lab Balances and Other Laboratory Equipment? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab balances and equipment for applications including PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

Baths & Chillers

Baths & Chillers

Water baths, dry baths and chillers for sample incubation, reagent heating and external temperature control of analytical instruments


Space-saving, low-cost calorimeters determine gross calorific values of liquid and solid samples; capable of measuring in adiabatic, isoperibolic, dynamic and time-controlled modesCalorimeter Features Overview

Measurement ModesVoltageCooling MethodMaximum Working TemperatureSpecial FeaturesMeasurement ModesIKA C6000IKA C200IKA C1

What is a Calorimeter?

Laboratory calorimeters measure the enthalpy, or heat transfer under constant pressure, produced or absorbed by a chemical reaction or a change in a material’s physical state. For non-combustible materials, calorimeters are used to determine the sample’s heat capacity. Once the liquid or solid sample is combusted, the resulting temperature change, from the endothermic or exothermic reaction, is reported and used to determine the heat transfer resulting from the reaction.

How Does a Calorimeter Work?

Calorimeters include a decomposition vessel (also called a bomb), in which the solid or liquid sample is placed. The sample, housed within a crucible, is connected to an ignition wire by a cotton thread. The bomb vessel is then filled with an excess of oxygen to burn or combust the sample.

During combustion, the temperature of the decomposition vessel increases to near 1,000°C. To prevent disruptive external temperature or humidity influences, the entire system is encased in an insulated plenum, or jacket. 

The heat produced during the reaction is captured and measured using different methods: adiabatic, dynamic, isoperibolic, static-jacketed, or double-dried. The results are displayed on a digital readout connected to a software program capable of saving methods and exporting data.

Calorimeters are utilized in many industries, including geothermal testing, injection molding, radionuclide characterization, and natural gas testing.

A - Calorimeter Cooling Method
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A1 - Oxygen Bomb Calorimeters

An oxygen bomb calorimeter or steel decomposition vessel containing the sample and high-pressure oxygen, is submerged in water while the mixture is ignited to ensure the energy produced by the reaction is contained.

A2 - Water Flow Calorimeters

Water-flow calorimeters feature a fluid reservoir, with automatic filling and draining, connected to an optional water heater or chiller for precise temperature control.

B - Maximum Calorimeter Working Temperature
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The maximum working temperature is the highest permissible ambient temperature under which the calorimeter can efficiently operate. As external conditions may impact the accuracy of results, all calorimeters must be operated under precisely controlled temperatures.



C - Measurement Modes
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C1 - Adiabatic Calorimeters

Adiabatic calorimeters ensure the temperature inside the insulated plenum, or jacket, remains equal to the temperature within the decomposition vessel during the test run. As an adiabatic system approaches perfect insulation, no correction calculations are required to account for external influences.

C2 - Dynamic Calorimeters

Dynamic calorimeters utilize the same measurement process as adiabatic systems, but the run time is shortened. Although the measurement results will fall within a standard deviation of the official standards, the accuracy and precision may be slightly lower. Dynamic calorimeters are commonly used in high-throughput labs processing a high volume of samples.

C3 - Isoperibolic Calorimeters

Isoperibolic calorimeters ensure the temperature within the jacket, or plenum, remains constant throughout the test run, resulting in lower heat flow. As an isoperibolic system does not trend toward perfect insulation, ambient conditions are tightly controlled to reduce temperature fluctuations. After the test, a correction factor is calculated and applied to the results.

C4 - Manual Calorimeters

IKA C200 calorimeters include a manual isoperibolic mode for employee training or higher education labs. The automated functions are switched off to allow for a trainer or professor to operate the system in a step-by-step fashion.

C5 - Static Jacket Calorimeters

In a static jacket calorimeter, the air-filled aluminum jacket is not temperature controlled. Although the air within the jacket plenum acts as a buffer to protect the calorimeter housing and sample vessel, a correction calculation must be applied to measured results, much like an isoperibolic system.

C6 - Timed Calorimeters

Double-dry (timed) calorimeters measure the temperature increase in the decomposition vessel rather than transferring the heat to the water inside the inner vessel, like isoperibolic and adiabatic systems. Without the heat transfer step, measurement times are reduced down to 3 minutes for standard samples. Double-dry calorimeters are commonly used by the waste management industry.

D - Calorimeter Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States. 

240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Special Features
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E1 - Calorimeter Chiller

Recirculating chillers improve reproducibility by regulating water conditions to provide stable starting temperatures for calorimetric measurements. 

IKA RC2 basic recirculating chillers feature a 4 liter storage capacity and 400-Watt motor to cool water down to -20°C.

E2 - Halogen Resistant Calorimeter

For samples with high halogen content, IKA calorimeters include an optional, steel, halogen-resistant combustion chamber with catalytic-activated inner surface.

E3 - Compact Footprint Calorimeter

IKA’s C1 Calorimeter is the smallest commercially-available model on the market. Less thanthe one cubic foot in size, the C1 is optimal for crowded benchtop spaces in busy, shared-use labs.

Where Can I Buy Calorimeters Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of laboratory calorimeters, stirrers, shakers, and other equipment for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

Shop Calorimeters by Model


IKA C200

IKA C6000



Micro,benchtop and high-speed centrifuges from Thermo Fisher, Benchmark and Hermle


HPLC, UPLC and UHPLC Liquid Chromatography Systems


Cryogenic systems and dewars from Thermo Fisher and Worthington for long-term storage of blood, infectious disease and cell culture samples.Liquid Nitrogen Storage Features Overview
HC Series High-Capacity Cryogenic Refrigerators by Worthington Industries in six capacity sizes; accessories available

Vessel DesignApplicationStatic Holding TimeLiquid Nitrogen CapacityVial Storage CapacityAplication Specific FeaturesThermo Fisher Bio-Cane SystemThermo Fisher Arctic Express Dry ShipperThermo Fisher Liquid Nitrogen Transfer VesselThermo Fisher Thermo-Flask ContainerIC Biomedical LABS Series FreezerIC Biomedical K Series FreezerIC Biomedical LS Series RefrigeratorIC Biomedical HC Series RefrigeratorIC Biomedical CX & CXR Series Vapor ShippersIC Biomedical LD Series DewarIC Biomedical XT Series RefrigeratorThermo Fisher Locator System

Liquid nitrogen vessels are designed to support long-term storage of samples at cryogenic temperatures (-196°C to -210°C). The process of cryo-preservation is widely used in clinical diagnostics, immunotherapy development, food and beverage, and semiconductor storage. Samples prepared with cryo-protectants, such as DMSO, can remain viable for up to a decade when stored in liquid nitrogen.

Liquid Nitrogen Tanks and Styles

Liquid nitrogen tanks are manufactured in two primary styles:

Cryogenic freezers are designed as sample retrieval systems (with locking lids, low liquid level indicators, and audible alarms) or IATA-approved shipping vessels for global sample transport.

A - Liquid Nitrogen Vessel Design
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A1 - Benchtop

Benchtop liquid nitrogen containers are designed for point-of-use, short-term sample storage or transfer of LN2 into a shipping vessel or cold trap. Benchtop dewars store fewer than 10 liters of liquid nitrogen and do not include sample storage racks. Certain benchtop vessels include carrying handles for easy transport and vented lids to prevent over-pressurization.

A2 - Free-Standing Liquid Nitrogen Systems

Free-standing liquid nitrogen systems are optimal for long-term sample storage within a cryogenic environment. Select models include cryo-box racks for easy sample identification, low liquid level alarms to maintain cryo-preservation conditions, and locking lids for high-security areas. High-capacity, free-standing systems are designed to store more than 10,000 samples and over 300 liters of liquid nitrogen.

View All Liquid Nitrogen Dewars

B - Application
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B1 - Long-Term Storage System

Nitrogen Storage Systems for Cryogenics

Long-term sample storage and retrieval systems include racks compatible with 81-cell or 100-cell cryogenic boxes to maximize sample capacity. Certain systems include locking lids for added sample protection and wheeled bases for easy transport. Low liquid level alarms alert users when an LN2 refill is required.

Shop LN2 Tanks and LN2 Containers

Low-capacity systems store less than 200 samples while high-capacity systems store more than 10,000 samples. Static holding times vary from less than 20 days to more than 300 days.

Shop N2 Storage Systems for Cryogenics

B2 - Liquid Nitrogen Transfer Vessel

Benchtop transfer vessels are designed to transport liquid nitrogen from a holding tank to a sample storage system or shipping vessel. Select transfer vessels are compatible with pressurized liquid withdrawal devices to prevent LN2 spillage and evaporation.

Liquid Nitrogen Transfer Vessels by Thermo Fisher Scientific

B3 - Liquid Nitrogen Dry Shipper

Dry shipping vessels maintain cryogenic conditions for global sample transport. Select units include secure data-logging systems for 21CFR Part 11 compliance.

C - Liquid Nitrogen Vial Storage Capacity
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Cryogenic storage systems utilize racks compatible with 81-cell or 100-cell cryo-boxes to maximize sample capacity. Samples are generally stored in 1.5 ml or 2 ml cryo-tubes or twist-cap vials. Low-capacity systems are designed to store fewer than 1,000 samples, while high-capacity containers store more than 10,000 samples.

View: Liquid Nitrogen Storage Systems with Racks

D - Liquid Nitrogen Capacity
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For laboratories without a liquid nitrogen delivery service, cryogenic vessels are earmarked as long-term LN2 holding tanks to supply sample storage systems and cold traps used throughout the lab.

For labs purchasing an LN2 holding tank, a critical specification is liquid nitrogen storage capacity. Low-throughput systems store fewer than 50 liters of liquid nitrogen, while high-throughput tanks store more than 200 liters.

E - Liquid Nitrogen Static Holding Time
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Static holding time is the length of time listed in days, during which the cryogenic tank retains the supplied volume of liquid nitrogen. This metric, however, presumes that the container is not accessed during the stated period of time. LN2 evaporation will occur each time the cryogenic tank is opened.

Narrow-neck pressurized containers are designed to reduce LN2 evaporation rates, whereas wide-neck dewars allow for greater liquid nitrogen evaporation each time the container is opened.

F - Liquid Nitrogen Application-Specific Features
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F1 - Low LN2 Level Alarm for Cryogenic Tanks

Certain cryogenic tanks, such as Thermo Fisher Locator Storage Systems, include ultrasonic level monitors with continuous digital LED readouts and audible/visual alarms when liquid nitrogen levels fall below set-point.

Shop Cryogenic Tanks with Alarms

F2 - Liquid Nitrogen Rack System

Sample storage systems accommodate stainless steel and aluminum racks for easy retrieval of cryo-storage boxes. Racks are compatible with 81-cell or 100 cell boxes for 2 ml cryo-tubes or 1.5 ml twist-cap vials. Certain models offer racks compatible with 5 ml high-capacity vials.

F3 - Liquid Nitrogen Locking System

For high-security sample storage, certain LN2 containers include locking lids equipped with optional padlocks, keypads or fingerprint scanners.

Shop N2 Storage with Locks

Shop Liquid Nitrogen Tanks and Storage Products

Where Can I Buy Liquid Nitrogen Vessels and Storage Freezers? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of liquid nitrogen storage vessels, dewars, dry shippers, and freezers.



IKA hand-held and stand-mounted dispersers for homogenization, emulsification and suspension of miscible samplesDisperser Features Overview
IKA S10 N5G Dispersing Element

Maximum SizeMaximum VolumeControllerConfigurationMotor RatingSpecial FeaturesVoltageSpeed ControlIKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 10IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 18IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 25IKA ULTRA-TURRAX UTL 25IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 50IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 65IKA ULTRA-TURRAX Tube Drive

What is a Lab Disperser? How is it Different from a Homogenizer?

Laboratory dispersers, sometimes referred to as high-speed shearers or rotor-stator mixers, are a type of overhead stirrer designed to disperse, rather than mix, compounds. As opposed to homogenizers, which uniformly mix two or more miscible components, dispersers create a mixture of two or more immiscible components owing to liquid-liquid or solid-liquid phase separations. Popular dispersions include emulsions (liquid particles dispersed into another liquid) or grind dispersions (solid particles dispersed into a liquid).

What are Lab Dispersers Used For?

Laboratory dispersers are used in the biotechnology industry to form liquid biomolecular condensates, the food industry to produce vinaigrettes or homogenized milk, the pharmaceutical industry to create creams, ointments and salves, and the chemical industry to manufacture polymers, such as rubber or latex.

Dispersers are composed of a high-speed, spinning rotor connected to a stationary stator tube, regulated by an analog or digital controller. Interchangeable dispersing elements, such as cutting heads, propellers, dissolvers and saw tooth grinders, are installed onto the stator tube for different shearing applications. Although small-scale dispersers may be operated by hand, most models are mounted to a telescoping base stand for stability.

A - Lab Disperser Configuration
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A1 - Batch Lab Dispersers

Laboratory batch dispersers are designed for continuous mixing of bulk samples (up to 30 liters in volume), such as paint formulations, adhesives, ceramics, and oils. As sample viscosities change during the dispersion process, batch models are designed to maintain mixing speeds. Since batch processing may expose the emulsion to airborne contaminants, batch dispersers are not appropriate for sterile samples.

Shop Batch Lab Dispersers Online

A2 - Inline Lab Dispersers

Inline lab dispersers are designed for sterile, air-free, pressurized suspension, emulsification, and deagglomeration of inline fluid samples, such as pharmaceutical filling lines. Inline dispersers process smaller volumes than batch dispersers, but reach high speeds than most high-volume models.

Shop Inline Lab Dispersers Online

B - Lab Disperser Maximum Speed
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Low-speed lab dispersers maintain mixing speeds of 6,000 to 10,000 rpm for applications such as premixes, balms, food gums and polymers. High-speed models boast mixing speeds up to 30,000 rpm for applications like tissue and cell homogenization.

Shop Lab Dispersers by Rotation Speed

C - Lab Disperser Maximum Volume
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Low-throughput batch dispersers and inline dispersers are designed to process samples between 26 ml and 2 liters in volume. High-throughput batch dispersers accommodate samples up to 50 liters in volume.

D - Lab Disperser Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

400-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Speed Control
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E1: Stepless Lab Disperser

Stepless lab dispersers offer a full range of speed controls including small rpm increments for operations calling for specific mixing speeds.

E2: Fixed Lab Disperser

Fixed lab dispersers do not include speed range controls. These models are optimal for recurring mixing operations specifying one mixing speed.

F - Lab Disperser Controllers
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F1: Analog Lab Dispersers

Analog lab dispersers controllers include a speed dial and power switch. Economic alternative to digital models, these units do not include on-board software with timers and data export capabilities.

F2: Digital Lab Dispersers

Digital lab disperser controllers include a speed dial with LED readout of current mixing speed. Certain digital models, like IKA’s ULTRA-TURRAX T 65 disperser, include red emergency stop buttons for immediate shutdown.

G - Special Lab Disperser Features
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G1: Autoclave-Safe Lab Dispersers

Certain models, like IKA’s ULTRA-TURRAX T 25, are compatible with autoclave-safe dispersing elements for hands-free sterilization.

G2: Lab Dispersers with Data Export

IKA’s ULTRA-TURRAX Tube Drive system includes software to document performance and program saved methods as well as a USB interface to export data.

H - Lab Disperser Motor Rating
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Models designed for low-volume, low-viscosity stirring contain motors generating 17 – 300 Watts. High-volume, high-viscosity models contain motors generating 500 – 2,200 Watts.

High-Speed Disperser Manufacturers - Shop and Compare Lab Disperser Models is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab equipment including dispersers, shakers, stirrers, and cold storage for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

Electrophoresis Systems

Electrophoresis Systems

Gel electrophoresis systems from Thermo Fisher, Benchmark Scientific, Accuris and IBI Scientific for separation of nucleic acids and proteins. Select models, reagents, kits stains and dyes in stock for immediate shipment.Gel Electrophoresis Systems Feature Overview
Owl EasyCast B2 Mini-Gel System with Combs by Thermo Fisher Scientific

Electrophoresis Gel DimensionsVoltageConstruction MaterialElectrophoresis Gel MatrixElectrophoresis Gel ConfigurationElectrophoresis Sample Type and ResolutionThermo Fisher Owl EasyCast B1 GelThermo Fisher Owl EasyCast B2 GelIBI Scientific Gel SystemsAccuris myGel

What is Gel Electrophoresis?

Gel electrophoresis systems utilize a porous, electrically-charged gel matrix to separate distinct nucleic acid and protein sequences based on molecular weight (or fragment size). The gel box is designed to include a cathode, or negatively-charged electrode, at one end of the medium and an anode, or positive-charged electrode, at the opposite end.

Electrophoresis Protocol

The gel box is filled with an ionic buffer that creates an electrical field when the cathode and anode are connected to power. As proteins, DNA and RNA molecules carry an intrinsic negative charge; the fragments migrate through the gel medium toward the anode. The speed of migration correlates to the size of the fragment; smaller molecules will move faster through the porous gel than larger, slower molecules. Once completed, the gel run results in unique bands of nucleic acids or proteins separated by molecular weight. Compared against a positive control ladder for reference, the appropriate fragments are excised from the gel for further purification.

A - Electrophoresis Gel Configuration
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A1 - Electrophoresis Systems

Horizontal Electrophoresis Gels cast in a horizontal gel orientation are used primarily for nucleic acid separation within an agarose matrix. As the pores within an agarose gel are larger than the pores within a polyacrylamide gel, the DNA and RNA molecules, which are larger than protein molecules, are better suited to migrate effectively through agarose. Since horizontal systems expose the gel matrix to atmospheric oxygen, agarose is chosen as the preferred medium over polyacrylamide, which does not polymerize in the presence of O2 gas.

View Online: Thermo Fisher Gel Horizontal Electrophoresis

A2 - Vertical Electrophoresis Systems

Vertical Electrophoresis Gels cast in a vertical orientation are used primarily for protein separation within an acrylamide matrix. As acrylamide pores are smaller in diameter than agarose pores, acrylamide gels yield a higher resolution and greater separation of proteins, which are smaller than nucleic acid fragments. Since vertical systems require a thinner (less than 2 mm) gel, acrylamide is the optimal choice over agarose, which contains larger gel pores that inhibit fragment migration through a thinner matrix. Learn more about the differences between horizontal vs vertical gel electrophoresis systems.

View Online: Horizontal DNA and Protein Electrophoresis Systems - IBI Scientific

B - Electrophoresis Gel Matrix
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B1 - Agarose Gel for DNA Electrophoresis

Agarose gels contain larger (100 to 500 nm) and less uniform pores than acrylamide gels, making agarose optimal for nucleic acid separations, which involve larger fragments than protein separations. Agarose gels achieve better fragment separation during horizontal runs, which are designed to accommodate thicker (greater than 2 mm) gels than vertical runs.

Compare Online: Agarose Electrophoresis Gels

B2 - Acrylamide Electrophoresis Gel

Acrylamide gels contain smaller (10 to 200 nm) and more uniform pores than agarose gels, making acrylamide optimal for protein separations, which involve smaller molecules than DNA and RNA separations. Acrylamide gels yield clearer fragment separation during vertical runs, which are designed to require thinner (less than 2 mm) gels than horizontal runs. Acrylamide does not polymerize, or harden, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, making acrylamide incompatible with horizontal gel boxes, which expose the gel matrix to O2 gas.

Compare Online: Polyacrylamide Gels

C - Electrophoresis Sample Type and Resolution
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C1 - Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis

For higher resolution and separation clarity, horizontal-oriented agarose gels are optimal for DNA and RNA molecules. Because horizontal gels utilize a continuous buffer system, the nucleic acid fragments are accessible during the separation procedure.

Compare: Benchmark SmartGlow Pre-stain for Nucleic Acid Gels

C2 - Serum Protein ElectrophoresisProtein

For higher resolution, vertically-oriented acrylamide gels are best suited for protein molecule separation. As vertical gels utilize a discontinuous buffer system, the buffer can only flow through the gel when moving from the top to the bottom chamber, allowing for more precise control of the voltage gradient. The optimization of the voltage gradient yields higher separation clarity, ideal for linear protein strands, which may demonstrate similar molecular weights.

D - Voltage
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D1 - 120 Volt Electrophoresis Systems

120-volt connections are suitable for low-voltage standard residential power outlets in the US.

D2 - 240 Volt Electrophoresis Systems

240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than appliances designed to operate at 120V.

E - Electrophoresis Buffer Capacity
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The volume and concentration of the buffer used to prepare and run the gel depends upon the application and sample type. Two commonly used buffer formulations are Tris-Acetate-EDTA (TAE) and Tris-Borate-EDTA (TBE). TAE buffer yields faster migration of linear DNA and better resolution of super-coiled or genomic DNA. TBE buffer is optimal for separation of longer DNA fragments (larger than 2 kb).

F - Electrophoresis Gel Dimensions
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The optimal gel box size depends upon the sample type, buffering capacity and voltage level. Smaller gel boxes are ideal for separation of short, linear DNA fragments, while larger gel boxes are optimal for longer DNA fragments (larger than 2 kb).

Where Can I Find a Trusted Supplier of Electrophoresis Equipment? offers carefully selected electrophoresis product lines from Thermo Fisher, IBI Scientific Gel Systems, Benchmark (SmartGlow) and Accuris (myGel & myVolt). Through our worldwide network of reps, we supply some of the largest research and production facilities in the world. is a laboratory speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets.

Shop Electrophoresis Gel and Equipment by Brand



IKA and Labconco evaporators and concentrators efficiently accelerate the evaporation process for high-yield production of distillates from a range of solventsEvaporators Features Overview
Rotary evaporators

Special FeaturesControllerSpecial FeaturesStyleVoltageControlsMaximum TemperaturecapacityLabconco RapidVap VertexLabconco RapidVap N2Labconco RapidVapLabconco CentriVapIKA RV 10

Laboratory evaporators remove solvents, such as acetone, methanol, DMSO or water, from aqueous samples for solvent recycling or distillation, sample purification, compound separation, or sample concentration.

How Do Lab Evaporators Work?

Lab evaporators use four primary methods to eliminate solvents: heat, centripetal force, vacuum, and nitrogen gas blow-down. Evaporators are designed as benchtop systems for daily use in pharmaceutical drug development, life science R&D, and wet chemistry laboratories.

A - Evaporator Configuration
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A1 - Evaporators

Evaporators apply heat directly to the sample, using a heating block or water bath, while generating a vortex motion within the sample tube, or flask. The vortex motion, which continuously mixes the sample, increases the sample’s surface area to boost evaporation rates.

Evaporators accommodate samples, housed in test tubes or flasks, from 5 ml to 3,000 ml in volume

What Are Laboratory Evaporators Used For?

Evaporators are used for environmental testing, toxicology studies, food chemistry and microbiology R&D, evaporation yields a small aqueous sample containing the analyte.

A2 - Evaporator Concentrators

Evaporator concentrators do not directly apply heat to the sample, but generate a centripetal motion within the sample tube to evaporate the solvent. The spinning motion decreases the sample’s surface area, reducing evaporation rates and lengthening evaporation times.

Evaporator Concentrator Capacity

Concentrators accommodate smaller sample sizes than evaporators, generally up to 50 ml in volume (and housed in microplates or centrifuge tubes).

How Are Evaporator Concentrators Used?

Evaporator concentrators are commonly used in life science for purification of peptide and nucleic acid samples, concentrators yield a small pellet at the bottom of the sample tube.

B - Evaporation Method
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B1 - Centrifugal Evaporators

Centrifugal evaporators utilize heat, applied to the samples through a heating block, and vacuum pressure, applied by a diaphragm vacuum pump, to remove solvent from the samples. The samples are loaded into rotors capable of spinning up to 5,000 rpm to ensure the liquid sample stays within the tube during evaporation. As the heating rate is tightly controlled through a digital controller, centrifugal evaporators are optimal for heat-sensitive samples.

B2 - Rotary Evaporators

Rotary evaporators, or roto-vaps, include a heating bath, dry ice condenser or chiller, solvent collecting vessel, vacuum pump and rotating distillation flask. The distillation apparatus rotates the flask above the heating bath to boil off the solvent – commonly acetone, ethanol, or DI water – which is captured and condensed back into its liquid phase by the dry ice cold trap or chiller. The collection vessel stores the purified solvent for further processing. Rotary evaporators accommodate samples up to 3 liters in volume (larger than the maximum sample capacities of nitrogen blow-down or centrifugal systems).

Rotary Evaporator Solvents and Chemicals

Roto-vaps are capable of capturing volatile solvents, like ether or methylene chloride, or polar aprotic solvents, like DMF.

B3 - Heated Gas Nitrogen Evaporators

Blow-down evaporators combine heat with a steady stream of nitrogen, along with vortex motion, to evaporate samples. More economical than centrifugal or rotary systems, nitrogen blow-down evaporators are not optimal for high-volume or high-boiling point samples.

C - Evaporator Capacity
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Nitrogen Blow-Down Evaporators

Nitrogen blow-down evaporators are ideal for smaller-volume samples between 100 ul and 10 ml; the total volume of all samples during a single evaporation run should not exceed 60 ml.

Centrifugal and Rotary Evaporator Capcity

Centrifugal evaporators and vacuum concentrators accommodate samples larger than nitrogen blow-down systems but smaller than roto-vaps; common runs should not exceed 450 ml. Rotary evaporators process high-volume samples up to 3 liters in volume.

D - Evaporator Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

208-volt or 240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Maximum Evaporator Sample Quantity
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Labconco’s RapidVap N2 nitrogen blow-down evaporator accommodates small runs up to 8 samples.

RapidVap Vertex models accommodate up to 50 samples.

For high-throughput labs, Labconco’s RapidVap system features a maximum capacity of 110 samples.

F - Evaporator Chamber Material
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F1 - Aluminum

Aluminum evaporator chambers are optimal for aqueous samples containing water or low concentration acidic solvents (between 0.1% and 1%).

F2 - Stainless Steel

Stainless steel evaporator chambers are optimal for aqueous samples containing high concentration acidic solvents (above 1%), like methanol or DMF.

G - Controller
(back to chart)

G1 - Analog Evaporators

Labconco’s RapidVap Vertex Evaporators include a pressure regulator, nitrogen switch controls to each of the 5 rows of gas nozzles, a temperature sensor, and a run timer.

G2 - Digital Evaporators

Digital controllers include LCD panels displaying current vortex speed, heating block temperature, and vacuum levels. Push-button controls allow users to design and save up to 9 different programs.

H - Special Features
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H1 - Heated Evaporator Lid

Lid heaters improve sample visibility and eliminate solvent condensation when applications involve high-boiling point solvents.

H2 - RS-232 Port

RS-232 ports are located on the rear of the unit for two-way communication with a printer or laptop computer.

H3 - Shatterproof Glassware

Optional shatterproof glassware is available for applications involving volatile chemicals.

H4 - Vortex Motion

Microprocessor-controlled programming regulates vortex speeds up to 1,000 rpm.

Find Evaporator Manufacturers Online is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served the life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop a wide selection of evaporators online for a wide variety of food, pharmaceutical, laboratory, and analytical environments.

Contact a specialist through web chat, email, or phone for pricing or a same-day quote.

Shop Evaporators by Brand and Style





RV 10

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Gel Imaging Systems

Gel Imaging Systems

Gel imaging systems and transilluminators from Analytik Jena, Accuris and Benchmark Scientific for visualization of nucleic acid and protein separations
Homogenizers & Sonicators

Homogenizers & Sonicators

Homogenizers and sonicators efficiently process plant and animal tissues or disrupt cellular membranes. Select models disperse nanoparticles to create chemical emulsions.Homogenizer Features Overview

FormatSpecial FeaturesFrequencyVoltageControllerSample CapacityProbe DiameterPowerBenchmark BeadBug HomogenizerBenchmark BeadBug 6 HomogenizerBenchmark D1000 HomogenizerBenchmark BeadBlaster 24 HomogenizerBenchmark BeadBlaster 96 HomogenizerBenchmark BenchMasher 400 HomogenizerNextAdvance BulletBlender HomogenizerQsonica Q55 SonicatorQsonica Q125 SonicatorQsonica Q500 SonicatorQsonica Q700 SonicatorBranson Sonifier SFX150 SonicatorBranson Sonifier SFX250 SonicatorBranson Sonifier SFX550 Sonicator

Laboratory homogenizers mix, blend or pulverize chemical and biological samples to form a uniform, homogenous suspension for further analysis. More specifically, homogenizers are used to lyse cellular structures, mill environmental samples, emulsify immiscible materials, and disperse chemical compounds by particle size.

What Are Homogenizers Used For?

Used commonly in the life science, environmental science, chemical synthesis, cosmetics, and cannabis industries, homogenizers are manufactured in handheld or benchtop designs to accommodate a wide range of sample types and volumes.

A - Homogenizer Format
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Laboratory homogenizers utilize a number of mechanisms to blend samples into uniform mixtures. Economical, mechanical mortar and pestle units crush the sample between the container and a solid, blunt object. Commonly used to process mammalian tissues, human cells, and cryogenically frozen samples, mortar and pestle systems are easy to operate, affordable, and require little maintenance. However, these units process one sample at a time, exhibit poor reproducibility, and struggle to blend difficult mixtures. For research and development, sample testing, and production environments, four common homogenizer formats are available: bead-based homogenizers, rotor-stator systems, paddle blenders, and ultrasonic cell disruptors.

A1 - Bead Homogenizer

Bead-based homogenizers use micro-beads - made of zirconium, silica glass, or stainless steel – to pulverize bone or hard tissue samples. The beads are placed into a close micro-tube containing the sample and rapidly agitated to ensure thorough mixing. Used for organelle extraction and cell isolation, bead mill homogenizers reduce the risk of sample cross-contamination, protect operators from infectious materials, and process up to 196 samples during a single run. However, bead mill units are designed to process small individual sample volumes (up to 2.0 ml) and require thorough bead cleaning between runs.

A2 - Handheld Homogenizer

Handheld rotor-stator homogenizers include a rotating steel shaft encased within a stationary metal housing. As the rotor spins, the sample is aspirated into the area between the rotor and housing, shearing the sample before centripetal force pushes the sample through exit slots in the stator.

What are Handheld Homogenizers Used For?

Used for cell disruption, tissue extraction, particle size reduction and emulsification, rotor-stator homogenizers include interchangeable probes to accommodate samples of various sizes and viscosities. However, these systems are low throughput, struggle to process fibrous samples, and require thorough cleaning to prevent sample cross contamination.

A3 - Paddle Blender

Paddle blenders utilize mixing paddles of different sizes to rapidly homogenize liquid samples placed in blender bags. Commonly used for food microbial analysis and water testing, paddle blenders accommodate high liquid sample volumes (up to 400 ml), achieve sub-micron particle sizes, and don’t require the use of beads. However, paddle blenders are more expensive than bead mill systems, require more bench space, and necessitate daily cleaning.

A4 - Ultrasonic Sonicator Homogenizer

Ultrasonic homogenizers, or sonicators, include a generator that produces ultrasonic waves within the sample to disrupt cellular structures or tissues. The samples are homogenized through cavitation or ultrasonic waves that create bubbles as they travel through the liquid sample. The microscopic bubbles expand and then violently collapse, attacking and pulverizing the samples. Sonicators are powerful and operate at a high frequency, but generate heat, produce noise, and struggle to process dry samples.

B - Homogenizer Power Supply
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Ultrasonic homogenizers use transducers to convert electrical energy into mechanical vibrations. When placed into the liquid sample, the generator probe amplifies the vibrations into pressure waves that use cavitation to shear the sample. As more power, measured in wattage, is applied to the transducer, the frequency of the pressure waves increases, allowing for faster homogenization rates and thorough processing of higher volume samples. Units producing between 55 and 250 watts of power are optimal for smaller, aqueous sample sizes (up to 250 ml). Units producing over 250 watts of power are ideal for larger, viscous samples (up to 1,000 ml) and specialty applications such as nanoparticle dispersion.

C - Homogenizer Controller
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C1 - Analog Homogenizers

Homogenizers with aAnalog Controllers include an on/off switch, amplitude dial, and toggle switch for continuous duty or run-by-run operation. More economical than digital controllers, analog systems don’t include audible or visual alarms, data export functions or access security.

C2 - Digital Homogenizers

Homogenizers with Digital Controllers include an LED readout and push buttons to regulate power level, run time and experiment progress. Certain controllers include audible and visual alarms, data export capabilities, saved sampling programs and password protection.

D - Homogenizer Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and South America. 240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe and throughout Asia, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Ultrasonic Homogenizer Frequency
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Ultrasonic homogenizers, or sonicators, produce ultrasonic waves at two common frequencies: 20 kHz (20,000 cycles per second) or 40 kHz (40,000 cycles per second). As the frequency produced by the generator probe increases, the agitation rate of the sample also increases.

What Are the Differences Between 20 kHz and 40 kHz Homogenizers?

Sonicators operating at a frequency of 20 kHz are optimal for aqueous samples diluted in water or PH-neutral buffer whereas sonicators operating at 40 kHz are ideal for viscous samples.

F - Special Homogenizer Features
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F1 - Pulsed-Mode Operation

Pulsed-mode operation, or pulsed-mode mixing, toggles between short cycles of high-intensity sonication and longer cycles of rest. The duration of the sonication and rest period are programmed by the user. Pulsed-mode operation is optimal for heat-sensitive samples as the rest periods allow for heat dissipation to prevent over-warming of the sample.

F2 - Refrigerated

The Next Advance BulletBlender uses a refrigerated coil to cool samples housed in microtubes down to 4°C for processing and temporary storage of temperature-sensitive samples.

F3 - Cup Horn

Cup horns provide indirect sonication and act as an ultrasonic water bath, allowing samples to be processed in sealed tubes to prevent cross contamination and protect operators from exposure to hazardous materials.

F4 - Glass Cooling Cell

Glass cooling cells allow for batch liquid samples to be processed at below-ambient temperatures. After the cooling cell is placed in an ice bath, the horn or micro-tip is inserted into the sample to circulate the solution. The cooling cell provides optimal surface area for heat transfer to protect delicate samples from overheating.

G - Homogenizer Probe Diameter
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The optimal probe diameter is dependent upon the sample tube or vessel size and the volume of the sample. Probes of 0.125” diameters are ideal for 1 ml to 15 ml sample volumes. Probes of 0.25” diameters are optimal for 10 ml to 50 ml sample volumes. Probes of 0.5” diameters are ideal for 20 ml to 250 ml samples. Probes of 0.75” diameters are optimal for 50 ml to 500 ml samples.

H - Sonicator and Homogenizer Sample Capacity
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Small-throughput ultrasonic homogenizers are designed to process single samples at a time while high-throughput models can accommodate up to 192 samples during a single run.

Where Can I Buy Lab Homogenizers and Sonicators Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served the life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's on-shore manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop lab homogenizers online for a wide variety of pharmaceutical, laboratory, life science research, and analytical environments. Terra specialists are able to provide support and expertise among many applications including life science research, drug discovery, material testing, wafer production, and wet chemistry.

Compare Homogenizers By Brand

Benchmark Scientific


Next Advance


U.S. Customer Service

Contact a specialist through web chat, email, or phone for pricing or a same-day quote.

Email: [email protected]

Phone: (714) 578-6016

Hot Plates

Hot Plates

Analog and digital hotplates by Thermo Fisher and Benchmark Scientific in stirring, magnetic, remote control and explosion-proof modelsHot Plates Features Overview
Laboratory hot plates

Maximum Stirring SpeedMaximum TemperatureApplication-Specific FeaturesControllerMaterialDesignVoltageBenchmark Scientific Biomega Hot PlatesBenchmark Scientific MiniMag StirrerThermo Fisher Micro Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Remote Control Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Super Nuova Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Explosion Proof Hot PlatesThermo Fisher General Purpose Hot PlatesThermo Fisher RT Series Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Cimarec Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Cimarex I Telesystem

What is a Laboratory Hot Plate?

Laboratory hot plates consist of a heating element installed underneath a plate surface, manufactured from conductive steel or plastic, connected to a digital or analog controller.

What is a Laboratory Hot Plate Used For?

Ubiquitous in clinical, production and research labs, hot plates are used to slowly and safely heat samples, reagents and chemicals without the dangers associated with the open flame of a Bunsen burner.

Stirring Hot Plate Styles, Components, and Types

Stirrer hot plates are equipped with an overhead or magnetic stirring apparatus to mix the sample during the heating process, ensuring more complete temperature uniformity. For operator protection, hot plates include several safeguards, including over-temperature prevention, audible and visual alarms, and non-sparking components for flammable or explosive samples.

A - Heater Stirrer Plate Design
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A1 - Hot Plate

Standard temperature control hot plates do not include a stirring apparatus for sample mixing during the heating process. More economical than stirring hot plates, standard hot stirrer plates are reliable workhorses requiring minimal maintenance and re-calibration routines.

A2 - Magnetic Stirrer with Hot Plates

Magnetic stirring hotplates contain an electromagnet, installed underneath the plate surface, which produces a rotating magnetic field across the plate. The magnetic field causes a stirring bar, immersed within the sample, to spin at a predefined speed (up to 2,500 rpm). Magnetic stirrers do not include a heating element.

A3 - Stirring Hot Plate

Stirring hot plates contain both a stirring apparatus and heating element installed underneath the plate surface for even stirring as the sample heats. While stirring hot plates are more expensive than magnetic hot plate stirrersmagnetic stirrers or standard hot plates, they provide better heating uniformity for high-volume (over 500 ml) and highly-viscous samples.

B - Hot Plate Material
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B1 - Aluminum Hot Plates

Aluminum hot plate surfaces provide better temperature uniformity than ceramic, polypropylene, or stainless steel. More durable and harder to crack, aluminum-top plates are optimal for high-throughput operations involving steel beakers.

Buy Aluminum Hot Plates

B2 - Ceramic Hot Plates

Ceramic hot plates are resistant to corrosion and withstand temperatures above 350°C. Ceramic’s white surface optimizes viewing of samples obscured by aluminum or steel plates. Ceramic tops are susceptible to heat shock from metal cylinders, so ceramic is an ideal choice for samples heated in glass beakers.

Buy Ceramic Hot Plates

B3 - Polypropylene Hot Plates

Polypropylene hot plates resist s harsh chemicals, acids and solvents, but do does not reach temperatures as high as ceramic or aluminum. Polypropylene hot plates are optimal for wet chemistry work involving solvents like methanol, acetonitrile and ethanol.

Buy Polypropylene Hot Plates

B4 - Stainless Steel Hot Plates

Stainless steel hot plates resists corrosion, most alcohols and ethers, and promotepromotes aseptic conditions. Stainless steel hot plates are optimal for ISO-grade cleanrooms, cGMP spaces and USP-compliant facilities.

Thermo Fisher Scientific Stainless Steel Hot Plates

C - Hot Plate Temperatures
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Standard hot plates carry a maximum temperature of 250°C to 350°C.

High-temperature hot plates, such as Thermo Fisher’s Cimarec line, maintain temperatures up to 540°C for high-boiling point solvents.

Incubator-safe hot plates are used with bacterial and mammalian cell cultures to achieve optimal growth conditions, such as 37°C or 45°C.

D - Hot Plate Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States. 240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Hot Plate Controllers and Heating Types
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E1 - Digital Hot Plates

Hot plates with digital controllers include on-board software for saving programs, PLC readouts to monitor temperature output, and up/down keys to quickly alter ramp rates. Advanced controllers include password protection, data export and over-temperature alarms.

Buy Digital Hot Plates and Stirrers

E2 - Analog Hot Plates

Hot plates with analog controllers include dials to modify temperature set points and audible over-temperature alarms. More economical than digital hot plates, analog models require limited maintenance and re-calibration.

Shop Analog Hot Plates

F - Maximum Hot Plate Stirring Speed
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Analog stirring hot plates with overhead stirrers reach speeds up to 1,200 rpm for mixing of samples and solvents. For viscous and high-volume samples, digital stirring hot plates utilize electromagnets and stirring bars to reach speeds up to 2,500 rpm.

G - Application-Specific Features
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G1 - Compact Hot Plates

Optimal for crowded lab spaces and shared-use core facilities, small-footprint hot plates use limited benchtop space without sacrificing performance.

G2 - Explosion-Proof Hot Plates

Thermo Fisher’s explosion-proof hot plate is suitable for Class 1 location and Group D atmospheres housing explosive liquids and powders.

Buy Explosion Proof Hot Plates

G3 - Incubator-Safe Hot Plates

Optimal for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture work, incubator-safe hot plates maintain temperatures ideal for cell line growth and resist moisture-based corrosion.

G4 - Remote-Controlled Hot Plates

Remote-controlled hot plates include extension cords to allow users to operate the hot plate without risking chemical exposure. Ideal for units installed on wet processing decks or within fume hoods,

Where Can I Buy Hot Plates and Lab Stirrers Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California,

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab hot plates and stirrer equipment for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

Shop Hot Plates by Model

Incubators & Environmental Test Chambers

Incubators & Environmental Test Chambers

Compact, benchtop and large capacity incubators with mechanical, gravity or dual convection heating. CO2, refrigerated, B.O.D, drosophila and microbiological models available. Test chambers from Binder for drug stability studies.Incubator Features Overview

Air Convection MethodVoltageVoltageTemperature RangeSpecial Application FeaturesCapacityConstruction MaterialShel Lab B.O.D.Thermo Fisher Refrigerated BODThermo Fisher HeracellBenchmark ST-45 & ST-180Shel Lab SCO6ADBINDER CB/CB-SBenchmark myTemp CO2Benchmark SureTherm CO2Thermo Fisher Reach In CO2Thermo Fisher Midi 40Benchmark SureTempBenchmark myTempShel Lab Fruit FlyThermo Fisher HerathermBINDER BD AvantgardeThermo Fisher PrecisionThermo Fisher Heratherm SecurityThermo Fisher Heratherm

A – Lab Incubator Capacity
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Laboratory incubators are manufactured in a broad array of sizes, ranging from compact benchtop units smaller than 1 cubic foot to high-capacity, reach-in chambers larger than 40 cubic feet.

Compact incubators (small-footprint, counter-top models under 6 cubic feet) are designed to house samples from a single cell culture line. For labs with limited workspace, certain benchtop incubators are compatible with stacking kits that accommodate up to 3 units.

Floor-standing incubators (up to 20 cubic feet) are designed to isolate cultures from multiple cell lines, protecting the samples from cross-contamination.

High volume reach-in models (larger than 20 cubic feet) include space for additional sample agitation equipment, such as incubator-safe shakers, for cell aeration and solubility studies.

Compare Incubator Sizes and Prices

B – Incubator Temperature Control Systems
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Lab incubators and environmental test chambers are designed to maintain environmental conditions ideal for growing and storing bacterial and mammalian cell cultures.

Why Use a CO2 Incubator for Cell Culture?

CO2 incubators, used primarily to promote human cell growth, maintain a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius and a humidity level of 95% RH. Microbiological incubators are designed to sustain temperatures between 5 degrees and 70 degrees Celsius to accommodate a variety of bacterial, viral and fungal species.

Refrigerated incubators maintain temperatures up to 40 degrees cooler than ambient conditions for fermentation studies and plant cell cultures.

C – Incubator Construction Material
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C1 – Aluminum Incubators

Drosophila incubators feature day/night cycling to promote fruit fly germination and include aluminum-clad interior panels for better light refraction throughout the chamber.

C2 – Epoxy-Coated Steel Incubators

Epoxy-coated steel resists the most common biocides and alcohol-based disinfectants, but may be prone to corrosion in high humidity environments.

C3 – Powder-Coated Steel Incubators

Powder-coated steel represents an economical alternative to stainless steel, resisting most sanitizers and disinfectants. However, the powder coating may crack after prolonged exposure to bleach-based cleaners.

C4 – Stainless Steel Incubators

Stainless steel incubators maintain aseptic conditions within the incubator, resist all sanitizers and disinfectants, and will not corrode in high humidity environments.

D – Environmental Incubator Air Convection Method
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D1 – Air Jacket Incubators

Jacketed CO2 Incubators employ two primary methods of temperature control: water-jacketed and air-jacketed internal plenums. Water-jacketed incubators offer better temperature uniformity but must be drained and cleaned weekly. Air-jacketed models are lighter, easier to transport, and maintenance-free.

D2 – Dual Convection Incubators

Dual convection incubators toggle between mechanical and gravity convection modes. Gravity convection models introduce heat, through a heating element, at the bottom of the internal chamber and allow gravity to cause the warmed air to rise throughout the storage area. Mechanical convection systems utilize an internal fan to distribute heated air across the internal chamber.

D3 – Forced Air Incubators

Similar to mechanical convection systems, forced air incubator utilize an internal or external blower to distribute heated air throughout the internal chamber. Forced air and mechanical convection incubators boast reduced recovery times after the chamber is accessed, making these designs ideal for high-throughput cell culture labs.

D4 – Gravity Incubators

Gravity convection incubators introduce heat into the bottom of the internal chamber and allow gravity to distribute the warmed air across the storage area as it rises. Gravity convection systems maintain lower air change rates than mechanical or forced-air units – ideal for labs storing non-aqueous samples prone to over-drying.

D5 – Mechanical Incubators

Mechanical convection incubators yield industry-leading temperature uniformity by utilizing a fan to distribute heated air across the internal chamber. Given their higher air change rate, mechanical convection incubators quickly warm samples transferred from cold storage without evaporating the growth media.

E – Voltages
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E1 – 120 Incubators

120-volt connections are suitable for standard residential power outlets in the US.

E2 – 240 Incubators

240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than appliances designed to operate at 120V.

F – Special Application Features - Incubator Function in Microbiology
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F1 – B.O.D. Incubator Applications

Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) applications determine the amount of pollution within a water sample by quantifying the oxygen consumed by microorganisms as they decompose organic matter. BOD incubators utilize Peltier coolers to maintain precise temperature uniformity for wastewater treatment, germination studies and plant cultivation.

View BOD Incubator Specifications

F2 – Drosophila Culture Incubators

Drosophila incubators maintain optimal conditions for fruit fly culturing by incorporating day-night light cycling (through an internal LED light), Peltier thermo-cooling (for over-temperature protection), and mechanical convection (for rapid temperature changes).

F3 – High Security Incubators

High security incubators utilize restricted access controls, such as fingerprint scanners and keycard readers, to protect high-value samples for clinical diagnostics, recombinant protein production, or gene expression.

F4 – Small Footprint Incubators

Compact models with optional stacking kits are ideal for crowded research labs or educational institutions with limited benchtop space.

F5 – Incubators with Timed On/Off Cycles

For samples with incubation protocols beyond the standard 48-hour culture cycle, advanced protocol models include digital controllers with timed on/off cycles for real-time sample monitoring.

F6 – Incubator with UV Lighting

The two primary methods for incubator chamber disinfection are UV sanitization and high-heat decontamination. Germicidal UV light, emitted at 254 nanometers, denatures microbial genetic material. Incubators with UV lighting are equipped with digital controllers and load presence sensors to prevent samples from UV exposure. High-heat decontamination cycles utilize hot, moist air to sterilize the inner chamber when the incubator is free of samples.

F7 – Stackable Incubators

Certain benchtop incubators are compatible with optional stacking kits capable of housing up to three small-footprint units. Stackable units are ideal for crowded labs culturing distinct cell lines that cannot be stored within a single incubator.

F8 – Remote Cell Culture Monitoring Incubators

Incubators with remote cell culture monitoring systems allow real-time, visual sample observation through a mobile app or LIMS integration.

G – Cell Culture Incubator Humidity and Co2 Controls
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G1 – CO2 Gas Incubators

CO2 carbon dioxide incubators use infrared or thermocouple sensors to maintain optimal conditions for cell and tissue culture growth. Optional CO2 alarms alert operators when their gas tank requires replacement.

G2 – Cell Culture Incubators - Humidity Control Co2 Incubators

Eukaryotic cells grow optimally at a humidity level of 95% RH. Incubators designed for clinical diagnostics utilize infrared sensors to maintain precise humidity levels to promote human cell growth.

G3 – O2 Gas Incubators

For anaerobic cell culturing or hypoxia studies, certain incubators include O2 gas control to reduce oxygen levels within the incubator down to 0.1%.

Shop CO2 Incubators by Brand

Shop By Category and Incubator Accessories

Lab Consumables

Lab Consumables

Lab consumables including microplates, centrifuge tubes, purification and isolation kits, inoculating loops and biohazard bags.
Liquid Handlers & Robotics

Liquid Handlers & Robotics

Liquid handling and robotic instruments from Hudson for ELISA assays, PCR preparation, DNA quantitation, serial dilutions and microplate washing


Labconco FreeZone Lyophilizers freeze dry samples for transport and long-term storage.Lyophilizer Features Overview
Labconco FreeZone Freeze Dryers, lyophilizers

Special Application FeaturesCollector TemperatureFormatVoltageCollector Chamber MaterialCollector SizeCollector SizeLabconco FreeZone 4.5L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 6L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 8L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 12L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 18L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 2.5L Freeze Dryer

What is Lyophilization?

Lyophilization, or freeze drying, is a common technique used in the pharmaceutical and food industries to vacuum freeze samples for long-term, ambient storage.

How Does a Lyophilizer Freeze Dryer Work?

Freeze-drying equipment uses sublimation to remove water, or common solvents such as methanol or acetonitrile, from a pre-frozen product. Sublimation occurs when a frozen aqueous sample moves directly from a solid to a gaseous state, without passing through the liquid phase.

Advantages of Lyophilization

By avoiding the liquid phase, the process of sublimation ensures the yield of a stable product that can be stored outside of a freezer and reconstituted for processing years into the future.

Continue: Advantages of Lyophilization for Long-Term Sample Storage

Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Lyophilizer Applications Include:

  • Manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Product Ingredients (APIs)
  • Increase shelf life of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and lab samples
  • Parenteral formulations and injections
  • Increase stability of therapeutic proteins (monoclonal antibodies)
  • Freeze drying for long term storage of dry powder with live microorganisms (probiotics / bacteria)

A - Lyophilizer Collector Coil Temperature
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The lyophilizer collector coil acts as a cold trap to collect moisture vapor eluting from the frozen product. To ensure the effective capture of sample vapor during sublimation, the collection coil must maintain a temperature of 15 – 20 degrees colder than the sample’s freezing point.

Aqueous Only

Freeze dry systems for aqueous samples have a working temperature of -50°C. Benchtop and console Lyophilizers are available in a range of capacities.

Low Eutectic Point

Freeze dry systems for low eutectic point samples have a working temperature of -86°C. Benchtop and console Lyophilizers are available in a range of capacities.

(Optional: Solvent & Collector Freezing Points: Table Shown Here)

A1 - 50 Degrees Celsius Lyophilizer Dry Freezers

A collector coil cooling to -50 degrees is optimal for freeze drying aqueous samples stored in DI or nuclease-free water.

View Price: FreeZone 18 Liter -50C Console Freeze Dryers by Labconco

A2 - 84 Degrees Celsius Lyophilizer Dry Freezers

A collector coil cooling to -84 degrees is ideal for low eutectic point samples stored in DI water or acetonitrile.

View Price: FreeZone 2.5 Liter -84C Benchtop Freeze Dryers

A3 - 105 Degrees Celsius Lyophilizer Dry Freezers

A collector coil cooling to -105 degrees is optimal for low eutectic point samples stored in methanol or ethanol.

B - Lyophilizer Collector Size (Capacity)
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The collector size lists the ice holding capacity, in liters, housed by the system during a single run. The maximum sample volume, per session, is 50% of the ice holding capacity.

Benchtop systems with capacities of 2.5 liters, 4.5 liters, and 8 liters are optimal for light to moderate sample loads.

Free-standing systems, with 6-liter, 12-liter, and 18-liter capacities are appropriate for large sample loads or numerous batches.

Browse Lyophilizers by Ice Holding Capacity

C - Lyophilizer Collector Chamber Material
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C1 - PTFE Lyophilization Chamber

PTFE-Coated Collector Coils and Chambers are recommended for lyophilization processes involving corrosive compounds.

C1 - Stainless Steel Lyophilizer Chamber

Stainless steel Lyophilizer Chambers and Collector Coils are optimal for lyophilization processes involving non-corrosive compounds.

F - Lyophilizer Bulk Trays, Flasks, Tubes and Accessories
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F1 - Lyophilizer Stoppering Tray Dryers

Labconco Stoppering Tray Dryers are ideal for batch drying operations involving pre-frozen samples from the same, or similar, production lot; the vessels are placed in a tray dryer to ensure uniform conditions. Although slight variations in drying conditions may be experienced for samples located near the clear front door of the tray dryer, the samples are heated under the same protocol and conditions to ensure maximum uniformity.

View: Labconco Freezone Stoppering Tray Dryers

F2 - Lyophilizer Freeze Dryer Flask Manifolds

Manifold drying provides a flexible alternative to tray drying for small volume samples with high eutectic and collapsed temperatures, vials, ampules, or frost-free flasks. Manifolds are connected to individual ports on the manifold after the pre-frozen samples are removed from a storage freezer or low-temperature water bath. Manifold systems accommodate vessels of different sizes to allow drying of multiple products or batches during a single run. As each vessel has a direct connection to the collector, manifold drying is more efficient than tray drying.

Compare: Purge Valve | Mini Chamber Purge Valve

F3 - Bulk Lyophilizer Freeze Drying Chambers

For stable products resistant to changes in moisture or oxygen levels, bulk drying chambers permit precise control of temperature and heat input. Rather than drying products sealed in individual vessels, bulk drying involves spreading the products across the surface area of a shelf or tray. As heat is transferred to the samples through conduction from the shelf or tray, the product must be spread across the area to a uniform thickness to prevent changes in heating rates. Bulk drying is not suitable for samples prone to cross-contamination or changes in atmospheric conditions.

Lyophilizer Chamber Sizes and Dimensions:

F4 - Lyophilizer End Point Detection

Determining the primary drying end point for each sample can be a challenge. Once the vessel is free of ice residue, the drying of samples located at the edge of the container is complete. To ensure that the center of the product has completed the drying process, an electronic vacuum gauge is used to measure the condensable gasses in the closed system. When the electronic gauge displays a pressure equal to the minimum level attainable by the system, the sample contains no more water vapor.

Labconco Freeze Dryers

Labconco’s End Zone system provides an alert when sample moisture levels have reached user-selected criteria, taking all of the guesswork out of end point determination.

Labconco’s Lyo-Works operating system, included on each FreeZone model, provides an audible alarm and automated email to each user when sample end points are reached.

Compare Online: Labconco Free Dryer Pricing

F5 - Lyophilization Remote Monitoring Dry Freezer Conditions

While freeze drying runs can extend well beyond normal working hours, remote system monitoring is crucial to ensure system efficiency. Labconco’s Lyo-Works operating system, standard on all FreeZone models, provides users with real-time sample conditions, including vacuum levels and collector temperature. Sample status updates are provided by email to each selected user when runs are completed, the drying end point is determined, and system parameters change.

Lyophilizer Setup and Installation

Where Can I Buy a Lyophilizer Dry Freezer? offers carefully selected lines of Labconco dry freezers. Through our worldwide network of reps, we supply some of the largest research and production facilities in the world. is a laboratory speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets.

Contact a Laboratory Equipment Specialist for assistance with technical questions, consultative sales, and selection and configuration of a product to fit your needs. Representatives are available Mon - Fri, 09:00 AM - 08:00 PM your local time, via phone, email, or live web chat.

Shop Lyophilizer Dry Freezers, Chambers, and Accessories

Microarray Products

Microarray Products

Arrayit microarray fluorescence and colorimetric scanners, printers and hybridization stations for DNA/RNA assays, genetic testing, proteomics and drug discovery
Microplate Equipment

Microplate Equipment

Benchtop microplate sealers, washers and readers by ACTGene, Accuris, Perkin Elmer and VitlMicroplate Equipment Features Overview

Detection ModePlate FormatWavelength RangeSpecial FeaturesWash VolumeVoltageControllerFormatBenchmark SmartReader 96Benchmark SmartWasher 96BMG LABTECH SPECTROstar NanoBMG LABTECH SPECTROstar OmegaBMG LABTECH LUMIstar OmegaBMG LABTECH FLUOstar OmegaBMG LABTECH CLARIOstar PlusBMG LABTECH PHERAstar FSXPerkin Elmer EnsightACTGene AgileReaderACTGene AgileWasherITL Virginia VTS SealerITL Virginia MicroTS Sealer

What is a Microplate?

Microplates, or microtiter plates, are designed to hold microliter aliquots of samples for analytical research and clinical diagnostic testing.

Microplate Sample Size

While standard microplates contain 96 or 384 sample wells, specialized plates can hold up to 3,456 samples for high-throughput screening. Along with test tubes and microtubes, microplates are a commonly-used vessel for sample processing, preparation, testing and analysis. Although many lab instruments, such as incubators, shakers, mixers, and centrifuges include adapters to accept microplates, three instruments are designed specifically for microplate-based assays: plate readers, plate washers and plate sealers.

A - Microplate Format
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A1 - Microplate Reader Uses and Applications

Microplate readers detect optical signals stemming from biochemical reactions, property changes, or the presence of analytes within each sample stored by the microplate. Commonly used in the life science, pharmaceutical, academic research, food and cosmetic industries, microplate readers are designed to analyze up to 3,456 samples during a single run, helping high throughput labs minimize operational time and save on reagent costs.

How Does a Microplate Reader Work?

Microplate readers utilize a broadband Xenon lamp to shine a light through the sample to excite the analyte. Once excited, the analyte emits light at a specified wavelength, which is filtered through a monochromator and detected by a photomultiplier tube, or PMT. The light detected by the PMT is quantified by the microplate reader’s software for further analysis. As each biochemical reaction yields a different optical change, microplate readers are compatible with different detection filters, monochromators, and detection modes to support the analysis of different sample types. The three most common detection modes are absorbance, fluorescence intensity, and luminescence.

Common applications for microplate readers include nucleic acid quantitation, protein purification, ELISA immunoassay analysis, and cell viability studies. But, microplate readers are also used for high-throughput screening of drug targets, protein-protein interaction studies, enzyme activity analysis, and cell toxicity and proliferation examinations.

A2 - Microplate Washers for Cell Culture, Assays, and Blots

Microplate washers tightly control and automate the process of washing samples housed within microtiter plates, as most microplate-based assays require a series of washes, m. Microplate washers contain a plate deck, a robotic manifold to control fluid dispensing, a series of microfluidic tubes connecting the manifold to bottles of solution (such as wash solution, buffer and DI water) and a digital controller to operate the system. Used commonly to wash cell cultures, western blots, ELISA assays, and protein arrays, microplate washers accommodate several microplate sizes (6-well, 30-well, 96-well, 384-well) and styles (deep-well, flat-bottom, semi-skirted and full-skirted). The digital controller saves user-written programs defining dispensing volume, aspiration volume, and wash cycle quantity. As opposed to mechanical plate washing, automated washers offer increased aspiration and dispensing precision, limited risk of sample cross-contamination, and shorter cycle times.

A3 - Microplate Heat Sealers for PCR Assays & ELISA Assays

Microplate heat sealers automatically place a plastic or foil seal over the microplate to protect samples from cross-contamination and evaporation. Microplate heat sealers include a plate deck, seal dispenser, heating element, ergonomic lever (for mechanical models), and digital controller. Heat sealers include optional plate adapters to accommodate different microplate sizes (6-well, 30-well, 96-well, 384-well) and styles (deep-well, flat-bottom, semi-skirted and full-skirted). Used commonly for sample storage, sample archiving, PCR assays, ELISA assays, and high-throughput screening (HTS), microplate sealers ensure a more uniform, air-tight, longer-lasting seal than mechanical methods.

B - Detection Mode
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B1 - Microplate Absorbance Reader

Absorbance detection measures the amount of light absorbed by the molecules within a given sample by comparing the amount of light produced by the excitation source to the amount of light measured by the detector. Molecules absorb light at known, specified wavelengths within the visible and non-visible spectrum. For example, DNA and protein molecules absorb UV light (at 254 nm), chlorophyll molecules absorb blue and red light, and hemoglobin molecules absorb red and green light. Measuring the amount of light, at a given wavelength, that is lost while transmitted through the sample allows the researcher to quantify the molecules within the sample.

What Are Absorbance Measurements Used For?

Absorbance measurements are used in applications such as microbial growth, cell viability, nucleic acid quantitation, and ELISA assays.

B2 - Microplate Fluorescence Reader

Fluorescence intensity, including FRET, detection combines the principles of light absorption and emission with a targeted assay using fluorescently-labeled molecules. Light, commonly from a Xenon lamp source, is shone into the sample to excite targeted molecules labeled with fluorescent dyes or probes. The targeted molecules absorb the light and, nearly instantaneously, alter the chemical construction of the probe or dye to release fluorescent light at a specified wavelength. The fluorescent light is filtered through a monochromator and detected using a photomultiplier tube. As the light intensity is correlative to the concentration of the fluorophore, fluorescence detection is used to quantify the molecules within a given sample.

What is Fluorescence Detection Used For?

Fluorescence detection is commonly used for enzyme activity and aggregation assays, reactive oxygen species studies, and DNA quantitation.

B3 - Microplate Luminescence Reader

Unlike absorbance and fluorescence detection modes, luminescence does not utilize a light source to excite the molecules within a given sample. The light generated by the sample, and detected by the microplate reader, is the result of a spontaneous chemical reaction or enzyme catalysis.

What is Luminescence Detection?

Luminescence detection is commonly used for receptor-ligand binding studies, reporter assays and cell viability experiments.

C - Digital vs Analog Microplate Controllers
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C1 - Analog Microplate Controller

ITL Virginia’s MicroTS microplate heat sealer includes an analog controller with an LED light to indicate when the unit has reached optimal sealing temperature.

C2 - Digital Microplate Controller

Each of BMG Labtech’s microplate readers include digital controllers with on-board software to chart and export assay measurements. The reader control and data analysis software is compliant with 21 CFR Part 11 requirements for highly-regulated labs.

D - Microplate Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and South America.

240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe and throughout Asia, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Microplate Wash Volumes
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The SmartWasher 96 by Accuris Instruments accommodates washing protocols specifying wash volumes between 50 ul and 2 ml. Liquid level sensors in the wash and waste bottles inform the user of low wash supply and overfilled waste.

The ACTGene AgileWasher accommodates wash volumes of 50 ul to 3 ml and yields a residual volume of <1 ul per well.

F - Microplate Plate Format and Sample Capacity
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96 Well Microplates and Standard Sizes for ELISA Assays

Although 6-well, 30-well and 48-well microplates are used for ELISA assays and special applications, the most common microplate capacities are 96-well, an 8-row by 12-column matrix, and 384-well, a 16-row by 24-column array.

High Capacity Microplates

For high-throughput screening (HTS) applications, high-capacity 1,536-well and 3,456-well plates are used. As the well sizes of HTS plates are extremely small, the plates must be loaded using an automated liquid handler.

G - Microplate Reader Wavelength Range
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Microplate readers are designed with broadband excitation sources and filtered detectors to measure wavelengths throughout the light spectrum. Microplate readers designed to detect wavelengths between 240 nm and 750 nm are focused on the ultraviolet (UV) and visible light spectrum. Microplate readers capable of detecting wavelengths from 240 nm to 1,000 nm include light in the UV, visible, near infrared (IR) and far infrared spectrum. The detection capabilities of the microplate reader must match the light emission bandwidth of the assays.

H - Special Microplate Reader Features
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H1 - Microplate Readers with Liquid Handlers

All BMG Labtech microplate readers are designed for easy integration with automated systems, such as plate handlers, liquid handlers, incubators, plate stackers and centrifuges. The accessible plate loader is designed for integration with robotic arms used in high-throughput screening labs, academic research, and clinical settings.

H2 - Microplate Readers with Barcode Readers

BMG Labtech’s CLARIOstar Plus and PHERAstar FSX microplate readers are compatible with external barcode readers for cGMP or GLP facilities using lot tracing procedures for cell banking, blood banking or quality control testing.

H3 - CO2/O2 Atmospheric Microplate Control

Microplate readers with atmospheric control systems include sensors with feedback loops to regulate the flow of CO2 or O2 gas through the gas vent port from external canisters. Commonly used for fungal or microbial cell culture studies, atmospheric control systems ensure that the samples are exposed to conditions optimal for cell growth.

H4 - Cuvette Microplate Reader Port

BMG Labtech’s SPECTROstar nano microplate reader includes a separate, top-mounted, covered cuvette port for single UV/VIS sample measurements in addition to the microplate loader for high-throughput measurements.

H5 - Microplate Incubators

Microplate readers with integral incubation utilize temperature-regulated heating plates, installed above and below the plate deck, to maintain sample temperatures of 45°C or 65°C. Sample incubation enables the accurate measurement of cellular assays, heat-shock responses, and enzyme kinetics.

H6 - Plate Shaker

BMG Labtech’s microplate readers are equipped with multi-mode shakers featuring user-defined intensity, duration and direction of motion. Users can select the shaking radius, choose between orbital or linear motion, and alter displacement (based on sample volume and well size).

H7 - Simultaneous Dual Emission Microplate Readers

BMG Labtech’s microplate readers are equipped with a simultaneous dual emission (SDE) detection system designed to measure two emitted wavelengths at the same time. SDE detection involves the use of two photomultiplier tubes reading two separate wavelengths, allowing for reduced measurement times and increased throughput.

H8 - Touchscreen Microplate Readers

Benchmark Scientific’s SmartReader 96 system includes a touchscreen and on-board software storing up to 200 unique programs and 10,000 test records. An integral USB port is included for easy data export to a PC or flash drive.

Where Can I Source Lab Microplate Equipment Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served the life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's on-shore manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop microplates online for a wide variety of pharmaceutical, laboratory, life science research, and analytical environments. Terra specialists are able to provide support and expertise among many applications including life science research, drug discovery, material testing, wafer production, and wet chemistry. U.S. Customer Service

Contact a specialist through web chat, email, or phone for pricing or a same-day quote.

Email: [email protected]

Phone: (714) 578-6016



Benchtop lab mills from IKA for grinding, cutting and homogenization of hard, brittle, fibrous or soft materials.Lab Mill Features Overview
M 20 Universal Batch Mill Grinding Chamber

Special FeaturesMotor OutputFeed Grain DiameterVolumeCooling MethodFeed HardnessMaximum SpeedMaximum SpeedIKA MF 10IKA Tube MillIKA M 20IKA A11

Laboratory mills, or laboratory mill grinders, utilize mechanical force to pulverize non-homogenous, batch samples into smaller, representative, homogenous samples for analytical and quality control testing. Mills are composed of a grinding element, such as a beater or cutting blade, housed within a stainless steel or disposable plastic milling chamber. The grinding element is connected to a high-speed motor regulated by a timer or digital controller.

What are Laboratory Mills Used For?

Lab grinding mills are designed to accommodate a variety of grinding elements for samples with different physical properties: dry, elastic, wet, hard, brittle and fibrous.

Impact mills are optimal for grinding hard, brittle or dried feed materials, such as grain, barley, cellulose, pharmaceuticals, resins and seeds.

Cutting mills are optimal for grinding elastic, fibrous, and soft feed materials, such as spices, hops, paper, plastics, and roots. Jaw crushers utilize a fixed and movable jaw for high-pressure crushing of glass and coal.

Analytical mills are commonly used for impact grinding of frozen food and vegetation.

Mortar grinders are used to pulverize dry or suspended organic samples, like homogenized pastes or creams.

Bead mills are optimal for shearing cell and tissue culture sample preparations.

A - Laboratory Mill Feed Sample Hardness
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The Mohs Hardness Scale charts the relative hardness, or scratch resistance, of various materials from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest). The hardness test is typically performed by pressing a loaded indenter object onto the surface of the test material to measure the size of the lasting impression. Examples of 5-Mohs materials include bone, iron, enamel, glass and titanium. Common 6-Mohs materials include steel, silica, porcelain, and zirconium.

B - Feed Grain Sample Diameter
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The particle size, or grain diameter, of the sample material governs the selection of the appropriate laboratory mill.

IKA’s M20 model specializes in pulverizing small-particle samples up to 7mm in diameter while IKA’s MF10 system accommodates large-particle samples up to 10mm in diameter.

7 mm

10 mm

C - Maximum Laboratory Mill Speed
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The maximum grinding speed, stated in revolutions per minute (RPM), defines the optimal sample types for each mill.

IKA’s MF10 models have a speed range of 3,000 to 6,500 rpm, designed for pharmacy samples, like vitamins, tablets, and roots, as well as rubbers and plastics.

IKA M20 models maintain a fixed speed of 20,000 rpm for pulverizing grain, seeds, ceramics, salt and active carbon.

IKA Tube Mills feature a speed range of 5,000 to 25,000 rpm, crushes stems, leaves, tobacco, ginger, flowers, drug capsules and enzyme powder.

IKA A11 models have a fixed speed of 28,000 rpm to grind cellulose, resin, animal feed, spices, coal and detergents.

6500 rpm

28000 rpm

25000 rpm

20000 rpm

D - Laboratory Mill Cooling Method
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Effective sample preparation prior to milling ensures maximal grinding efficiency and mitigates instrument wear-and-tear. Elastic or fibrous samples, such as rubber and plant materials, are frozen over dry ice prior to grinding. Biological samples, such as nucleic acids and proteins, are cryogenically frozen in liquid nitrogen before milling. To prevent damage to the unit, wet samples are passively cooled and dried before milling to prevent adhesion to grinding elements.

E - Laboratory Mill Volume

Low-throughput models are designed to accommodate sample volumes down to 40 ml while high-throughput models process samples up to 250 ml in volume.

40 ml

80 ml

250 ml

F - Laboratory Mill Motor Output
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IKA’s portfolio of laboratory mills and grinders include low-power models with 80-Watt motors and high-power models with 500-Watt motors. IKA’s standard units include protection mechanisms such as emergency-stop switches, overheating alarms, and grinding enclosures to prevent operator exposure.





G - Special Laboratory Grinding Features
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G1 - Lab Mills with Adjustable Speed Controls

Certain models include rotary dials to adjust current mixing speed, target mixing speed, and mixing time.

IKA Tube Mill Control includes a touch-screen keypad and LED display of real-time mixing conditions.

G2 - GMP Compliant Lab Mills

IKA M20 mill includes a removable, easy-to-clean, steel grinding chamber and USB interface for safe data export.

G3 - Enclosed Mill Grinding Chamber

IKA Tube Mill Control includes an enclosed, plastic grinding chamber for sample and operator protection. The disposable grinding chamber can be removed and used for long-term sample storage.

Where Can I Buy Laboratory Mills and Grinding Equipment Mills Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of laboratory mills and grinders for impact, cutting, analysis, beads, and mortar.

Ovens & Furnaces

Ovens & Furnaces

Lab ovens and furnaces by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sheldon and Binder include advanced protocol and security models as well as high-temperature furnaces suitable for semiconductor processing
Mixers & Rockers

Mixers & Rockers

Mixers, rockers, rollers and rotators for 2-D and 3-D mixing of reagents, and samples in tubes, flasks, beakers, blot trays and microplatesMixer Features Overview
Laboratory rockers

Special FeaturesControllerFormatCollector TemperatureVoltageCollector SizeCollector Chamber MaterialBenchmark BenchWaver 3DBenchmark Everlast 247Benchmark Rotisserie Rotating MixerBenchmark BenchRocker 3DBenchmark BenchRocker 2DBenchmark TubeRollerBenchmark RotoBotBenchmark Roto-ThermBenchmark BenchBlotterBenchmark BlotBloyBenchmark BioMixerBenchmark Roto-MiniBenchmark TubeRockerNext Advance Freedom RockerThermo Fisher Compact Mini RotatorThermo Fisher Compact Waving Rotator

Laboratory mixers consist of an oscillating, motorized platform, designed to hold flasks, beakers, or tubes, installed onto a stabilizing base and connected to an analog or digital controller to regulate the movement and speed of the platform.

Unlike high-speed lab shakers or vortexers, which mix samples in orbital or vortex motions, mixers gently agitate samples in linear rocking, tilting or rotating motions. Commonly used in molecular biology or biochemistry labs, mixers are ideal for gel staining, western blotting, or hybridization assays.

A - Laboratory Rollers, Rockers, Mixers, and Blotters
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A1 - Laboratory Blotter

Optimal for western blot washing or gel staining, blotters gently oscillate, on a 2-dimensional plane, at 10 – 12 rpm to protect the integrity of the gel or membrane. Large optional stacking platforms accommodate multiple gel boxes or blot trays at a single time.

A2 - Laboratory Mixer

Combining the design of a rocker and a shaker, lab mixers maintain a 3-dimensional motion at higher speeds (up to 300 rpm) than lab rockers. Standard mixers include a broad array of platform clamps and tube racks to hold Erlenmeyer flasks, graduated cylinders, beakers, reservoirs, test tubes and conical vials.

A3 - Laboratory Rocker

Laboratory rockers employ a gentle tilting or rocking motion, in 2- or 3-dimensions, to mix samples at speeds of 30 – 80 rpm. Certain rockers include controllers to adjust the mixing speed or the tilting position of samples. For cell culture or proteomics applications, standard rockers are designed to operate within incubators, cold rooms or walk-in refrigerators.

A4 - Laboratory Roller

Laboratory tube rollers produce a wave effect to ensure thorough mixing of specimens housed in blood collection tubes or roller bottles. Optimal for clinical laboratories and outpatient clinics,

A5 - Laboratory Rotator

Laboratory Rotators move in a tumbling motion to thoroughly mix genomics or biochemistry samples. Compatible with a wide range of tube holders, rotators are designed to mix samples in vertical or horizontal orientations.

Compare by Rotator Style

Fixed Speed Rotators

Variable Speed Rotators

A6 - Laboratory Rotisserie Mixer

Rotisserie mixers, like Benchmark’s RotoBot, agitate samples in a vertical spinning motion at a variety of mixing speeds and tilt angles. Designed for homogenous dispersion, rotisserie mixers include holders for test tubes, snap-top tubes, and conical vials.

B - Maximum Blotter, Roller, and Mixer Speed
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Blotters and tube rollers maintain fixed or variable mixing speeds up to 40 rpm for gentle agitation of blood samples, gel stains, or Southern blots. Rockers and rotators mix samples at 80 rpm for binding assays or cell resuspension. Mixers attain speeds up to 300 rpm for vigorous agitation of growth media, reagents or proteomics samples.

C - Laboratory Rocker and Mixer Configuration
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C1 - Variable Speed Mixers

Benchmark’s Everlast 247 models include variable speed controllers to adjust mixing levels for different sample types. Advanced controllers include timers, over-speed alarms, user-configured programs, and self-calibration.

C2 - Fixed Speed Laboratory Rockers

Benchmark’s BlotBoy Rockers, include fixed-speed systems for defined applications, such as gel staining or blood sample processing.

D - Lab Equipment Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Rocker and Mixer Motion Type
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E1 - 1-Dimensional Laboratory Rollers

Benchmark’s Tube Rollers are designed to oscillate the platform on a single plane, moving samples back-and-forth across metal rollers.

1-Dimensional Rollers

E2 - 2-Dimensional Laboratory Rockers

Benchmark’s BenchBlotter fixed rockers allow the tilting angle of the platform to adjust, supporting 2-dimensional mixing on the x- and y-axis.

2-Dimensional Rockers

E3 - 3-Dimensional Laboratory Mixers and Wavers

Benchmark’s BenchWaver and BioMixer are high-speed mixers and wavers that support 3-dimensional mixing in a rocking or orbital motion.

3-Dimensional Wavers and Mixers

F - Lab Mixer Controllers
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Analog lab mixers and rockers include hand-dials to alter mixing speeds and timers with audible alarms.

Digital lab mixers and rockers Models with digital controllers adjust tilting angles and mixing speeds, save user-defined programs, and export data.

G - Special Lab Mixer Features and Accessories
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G1 - Laboratory Incubator Mixers

Benchmark’s Roto-Therm maintains temperatures from 5°C - 60°C for gentle mixing of mammalian or bacterial cell culture samples.

G2 - Laboratory Tube Holders

Thermo Fisher’s Compact Digital Mini Rotator offers interchangeable tube holders to accommodate flasks, beakers, graduated cylinders, test tubes, centrifuge tubes, conical vials, and ampules.

G3 - Automated Laboratory Dispensing Blotters

Next Advance’s Freedom Rocker BlotBot includes an automated delivery system for dispensing and removal of reagents, buffer and cell media. Digital programming allows users to define washing protocols and adjust dispensing volumes, rocking speeds, and mixing times.

Where Can I Buy Laboratory Rockers and Mixers Online? is a speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab mixing equipment including rockers, shakers, and stirrers. Browse a curated list of products for applications including general laboratory, research, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

Moisture Analyzers

Moisture Analyzers

Moisture Analyzers from Sartorius for analysis of food, pharmaceutical and environmental samples.Moisture Analyzer Features Overview
Large Memory Capacity and Method Development

WeighingTemperature RangeReadabilityVoltageMemory CapacityData TransferHeating ProgramsSartorius MA160Sartorius MA37

What is a Moisture Analyzer?

Moisture analyzers, or moisture balances, determine the moisture content in a sample by measuring the amount of weight a sample loses as it dries.

What Are Moisture Analyzers Used For?

Commonly used to test food samples, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, building materials, and animal feed, moisture analyzers determine the quality, concentration, purity, shelf life and stability of raw materials and final products.

Moisture Analyzer Heating Methods - Halogen vs Infrared Lamps

Moisture analyzers dry the sample using either an infrared (IR) or halogen heat lamp.

Halogen Heating Method

Models with halogen heating lamps are optimal for samples requiring rapid drying and high repeatability.

IR Heating Method

Moisture balances with infrared heating lamps are an economical alternative to halogen-lamp models. Since IR lamps take longer to heat, they are optimal for samples prone to scorching due to rapid temperature changes.

A - Moisture Analyzer Weighing Capacity
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The weighing capacity is the maximum sample weight, listed in grams, which the moisture analyzer can process during a single run.

Sartorius’ MA 37 moisture analyzers, optimal for small-scale R&D or food sample quality control, accommodates solids or pastes up to 60 grams in weight.

Sartorius’ MA 160 models are idealare, ideal for analytical chemistry labs and supportand, support samples up to 200 grams.

B - Moisture Analyzer Temperature Range
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Standard moisture analyzers commonly feature a temperature range of 40°C to 120°C.

However, the Sartorius MA 37 and MA 160 models utilize a 600-Watt infrared AURI unit to heat samples to 160°C and 200°C respectively.

View Online: Sartorius MA 37

View Online: Sartorius MA 160

PDF: The New MA37 Moisture Analyzer for Daily Routine Operation

C - Moisture Analyzer Readability
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Readability represents the smallest denominator at which a weight can be measured by the moisture analyzer. Industry standard readability values vary from 0.1 mg to 100 mg.

D - Moisture Analyzer Voltage
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120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

E - Moisture Analyzer Memory Capacity
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Sartorius’ MA 37 and MA 160 moisture analyzers include on-board software capable of storing saved programs and a library system to organize and quickly reference stored protocols. The software automatically stores the last 999 measurements for easy retrieval or export.

F - Moisture Analyzer Data Transfer
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Method and measurement data are stored by the Sartorius MA 37 and MA 160 moisture balances for export via SD card, mini-USB connection (for import to Excel or LIMS), and GLP-compliant printing.

G - Moisture Analyzer Heating Programs
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G1 - Standard Moisture Analyzer Drying

Standard IR moisture drying programs are optimal for samples unaffected by rapid temperature changes. As standard drying protocols run faster than delicate drying protocols, they are ideal for high-throughput labs processing large quantities of daily samples.

G2 - Gentle Moisture Analyzer Drying

Gentle moisture drying programs are optimal for combustible samples or specimens sensitive to rapid temperature changes. During gentle drying, the measurement time is extended to account for a slower ramp-up cycle to reach target temperature.

Where Can I Buy Moisture Analyzers Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served the life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, semiconductor, aerospace and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop laboratory moisture analyzers online for a wide variety of food, pharmaceutical, laboratory, and analytical environments.

Contact a specialist through web chat, email, or phone for pricing or a same-day quote.

U.S. Customer Service

Email: [email protected]

Phone: (714) 578-6016

International Sales and Customer Service

Phone: (714) 578-6100

Compare Sartorius Laboratory Moisture Analyzers

Sartorius MA160

Sartorius MA37

Overhead Stirrers

Overhead Stirrers

IKA Overhead Stirrers perform a range of mixing tasks for volumes from 15 to 200L; available with a wide range of stirring elementsStirrer Features Overview
Laboratory overhead stirrers

ApplicationMaximum SpeedMaximum ViscosityCapacityApplication-Specific FeaturesIKA RW 47IKA RW 28IKA RW 20IKA EUROSTAR 200IKA EUROSTAR 100IKA EUROSTAR 60IKA EUROSTAR 40IKA EUROSTAR 20

Laboratory Stirrers Comparison Chart

Overhead stirrers consist of a stirring fixture, or stand, a digital controller, a drive shaft, and a motor for mixing viscous solutions. Overhead stirrers are used for a broad range of mixing applications including tissue grinding, cell media preparation, wastewater purification, formulation of polymers, adhesives, and coatings.

Optional lab stirrer accessories include propeller blades, dissolvers, head clamps, manual chucks, telescoping stands, and shaft protectors.

Factory-fitted quick adapters, or chucks, support quick shaft replacement for labs processing a wide range of sample viscosities.

Digital controllers include programmable functions, overload protection alarms, mixing speed adjustment, data export and third-party software integration.

A - Application
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A1 - General Mixing

General overhead mixing stirrers, such as the IKA EUROSTAR 40 models, are ideal for mixing low viscosity liquids below 7,000 mPas (millipascal-seconds). Applications include cell media preparation or soft tissue grinding for drug development.

A2 - High Viscosity Liquids

High-viscosity overhead stirrers, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 100, include interchangeable blades and drive shafts to ensure thorough stirring or homogenization. Ideal for mixing solutions above 7,000 mPas (millipascal-seconds), such as polymers, plastics, adhesives, glues and coatings.

B - Maximum Speed
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Listed in revolutions per minute (rpm), standard overhead stirrers carry a user-adjustable mixing speed range between 30 – 1,500 rpm. However, high-speed models, such as IKA’s EUROSTAR 20, maintain speeds up to 2,000 rpm for low-volume mixing (under 15 ml).

C - Maximum Viscosity
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Max-viscosity stirrers, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 200, are designed to mix solutions up to 150,000 mPas. The dynamic viscosity, reported in millipascal-seconds (mPas), refers to the thickness of the fluid during mixing. As batch solutions may increase in viscosity during the stirring process, the maximum viscosity specification of the overhead stirrer must meet or exceed the highest attainable dynamic viscosity of the solution.

D - Lab Stirrer Capacity
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Capacity refers to the maximum volume of fluid, reported in liters, safely and effectively mixed by the overhead stirrer. Unless otherwise noted in the manufacturer specifications, the maximum volume assumes the liquid to be water.

High-volume overhead stirrers, like IKA’s RW47, are designed to homogenize up to 200 liters of fluid.

E - Application-Specific Lab Stirrer Features
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E1 - Wireless Lab Stirrer Controller

IKA’s EUROSTAR overhead stirrers include a wireless digital controller featuring automatic speed adjustment, programmable functions, multilingual display, timed interval operation, lock/unlock modes, and integrated temperature measurement.

E2 - Reversible Stirring

Reversible stirring models, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 100, are designed to rotate the stirring shaft in clockwise (standard) and counter-clockwise (reversible) directions. For highly-viscous solutions, reversible stirring ensures the fluid is thoroughly mixed.

E3 - Lab Stirrer Overload Protection

Stirrers with overload or overheat protection, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 60, automatically shut down if conditions fall outside of the operating range. Overload protection guards the motor and electronics from heat-related damage during continuous-duty mixing.

E4 - Lab Stirrer Software Integration

Digital overhead stirrers, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 200, include controllers with data export functions compatible with third-party software, such as laboratory information management systems (LIMS). Password-protected profiles and secure data export operations are optimal for cGMP facilities.

Where Can I Buy Laboratory Stirrers and Shakers Online? is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab stirrer and shaker equipment for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.



Mechanical and electronic pipettes and tips from Sartorius Biohit. Single-channel and multi-channel pipettors available for immediate shipment.
Refrigerators & Freezers

Refrigerators & Freezers

Refrigerators, freezers, and combo refrigerator/freezers by Thermo Fisher, Helmer, Marvel and Benchmark Scientific
Shakers & Vortexers

Shakers & Vortexers

Incubated, refrigerated, orbital and reciprocating shakers and vortexers by Thermo Fisher, Benchmark Scientific and VITL
Spectrophotometers & Analytical Equipment

Spectrophotometers & Analytical Equipment

Spectrophotometers, microscopy, FTIR and AA systems from Perkin Elmer, Biochrom and Hudson Robotics.
Thermal Cyclers

Thermal Cyclers

qPCR and standard PCR thermal cyclers from Analytik Jena and Biometra for robust amplification of nucleic acid sequences
Water Purification

Water Purification

Water purifications systems and accessories from Barnstead Thermo Fisher produce ASTM Type 1, 2 and 3 grade water
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