PCR thermal cyclers optimize sample conditions to empower the amplification of target nucleic acid sequences for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Thermal cyclers are designed to perform two types of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods: end-point, or standard PCR, and real-time qPCR.
Microplates, or microtiter plates, are designed to hold microliter aliquots of samples for analytical research and clinical diagnostic testing.
Laboratory gel imagers, or gel documentation systems, are used by research labs to visualize and photo-document nucleic acid samples separated through gel electrophoresis, count microbial colonies, separate protein samples on western blots, and identify mixtures through thin layer chromatography (TLC).
Laboratory transilluminators,or gel light boxes, are used by life science labs to visualize DNA, RNA or protein samples separated throughgel electrophoresis. Lab transilluminators contain an ultraviolet UV) or visible blue or white) light source, glass viewing surface, UV-blocking or amber filter cover.
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Laboratory calorimeters measure the enthalpy, or heat transfer under constant pressure, produced or absorbed by a chemical reaction or a change in a material’s physical state. For non-combustible materials, calorimeters are used to determine the sample’s heat capacity. Once the liquid or solid sample is combusted, the resulting temperature change, from the endothermic or exothermic reaction, is reported and used to determine the heat transfer resulting from the reaction.
Laboratory hot plates consist of a heating element installed underneath a plate surface, manufactured from conductive steel or plastic, connected to a digital or analog controller.
Gel electrophoresis systems utilize a porous, electrically-charged gel matrix to separate distinct nucleic acid and protein sequences based on molecular weight (or fragment size). The gel box is designed to include a cathode, or negatively-charged electrode, at one end of the medium and an anode, or positive-charged electrode, at the opposite end.
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Electrophoresis is a common lab procedure for identifying and separating macromolecules. It was first observed in the early 1800s by a university scientist in Moscow. Like many discoveries, it was accidental, but has proven itself useful for many research scenarios. By applying electricity, technicians use the particles’ negative or positive charges to make them migrate through porous matrix, such as an agarose gel. When positively charged molecules are present in a sample, they will creep towards the negative current (cathode), while negatively charged molecules will migrate to the positive current (anode).
Besides a source of electricity and gel, this kinetic test requires buffer to help prevent temperature and pH extremes. The type of gel used depends on the sample and application. Gels are “solid,” but porous. Within the gel, larger molecules will travel more slowly and smaller molecules will move quickly. Therefore, molecular size is another way that