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  • Autoclaves & Labware Washers

    Autoclaves & Labware Washers

    Autoclaves and labware washers disinfect liquids, media, instruments, and glassware
  • Balances & Analytical Scales

    Balances & Analytical Scales

    Analytical, precision and top-loading balances and accessories by Sartorius. Select models available for immediate shipment.
  • Baths & Chillers

    Baths & Chillers

    Water baths, dry baths and chillers for sample incubation, reagent heating and external temperature control of analytical instruments
  • Calorimeters


    Space-saving, low-cost calorimeters determine gross calorific values of liquid and solid samples; capable of measuring in adiabatic, isoperibolic, dynamic and time-controlled modes
  • Centrifuges


    Micro,benchtop and high-speed centrifuges from Thermo Fisher, Benchmark and Hermle
  • Chromatography


    HPLC, UPLC and UHPLC Liquid Chromatography Systems
  • Liquid Nitrogen Dewars

    Liquid Nitrogen Dewars

    Cryogenic systems and dewars from Thermo Fisher and Worthington for long-term storage of blood, infectious disease and cell culture samples.Liquid Nitrogen Storage Features Overview
    Terra’s Softwall Cleanroom Control Panel with Operation Status Indicator LED provides convenient access to all controls and includes a filter replacement alarm to keep your FFUs working safely and efficiently. The filter replacement alarm provides visual (blinking LED) and audible alerts when filters need to be replaced.
  • Dispersers


    IKA hand-held and stand-mounted dispersers for homogenization, emulsification and suspension of miscible samples
  • Electrophoresis Systems

    Electrophoresis Systems

    Gel electrophoresis systems from Thermo Fisher, Benchmark Scientific, Accuris and IBI Scientific for separation of nucleic acids and proteins. Select models, reagents, kits stains and dyes in stock for immediate shipment.Gel Electrophoresis Systems Feature Overview

    Electrophoresis Gel Dimensions Electrophoresis Gel Matrix Voltage Construction Material Electrophoresis Gel Configuration Electrophoresis Sample Type and Resolution

    What is Gel Electrophoresis?

    Gel electrophoresis systems utilize a porous, electrically-charged gel matrix to separate distinct nucleic acid and protein sequences based on molecular weight (or fragment size). The gel box is designed to include a cathode, or negatively-charged electrode, at one end of the medium and an anode, or positive-charged electrode, at the opposite end.

    Electrophoresis Protocol

    The gel box is filled with an ionic buffer that creates an electrical field when the cathode and anode are connected to power. As proteins, DNA and RNA molecules carry an intrinsic negative charge; the fragments migrate through the gel medium toward the anode. The speed of migration correlates to the size of the fragment; smaller molecules will move faster through the porous gel than larger, slower molecules. Once completed, the gel run results in unique bands of nucleic acids or proteins separated by molecular weight. Compared against a positive control ladder for reference, the appropriate fragments are excised from the gel for further purification.

    A - Electrophoresis Gel Configuration
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    A1 - Electrophoresis Systems

    Horizontal Electrophoresis Gels cast in a horizontal gel orientation are used primarily for nucleic acid separation within an agarose matrix. As the pores within an agarose gel are larger than the pores within a polyacrylamide gel, the DNA and RNA molecules, which are larger than protein molecules, are better suited to migrate effectively through agarose. Since horizontal systems expose the gel matrix to atmospheric oxygen, agarose is chosen as the preferred medium over polyacrylamide, which does not polymerize in the presence of O2 gas.

    View Online: Thermo Fisher Gel Horizontal Electrophoresis

    A2 - Vertical Electrophoresis Systems

    Vertical Electrophoresis Gels cast in a vertical orientation are used primarily for protein separation within an acrylamide matrix. As acrylamide pores are smaller in diameter than agarose pores, acrylamide gels yield a higher resolution and greater separation of proteins, which are smaller than nucleic acid fragments. Since vertical systems require a thinner (less than 2 mm) gel, acrylamide is the optimal choice over agarose, which contains larger gel pores that inhibit fragment migration through a thinner matrix. Learn more about the differences between horizontal vs vertical gel electrophoresis systems.

    View Online: Horizontal DNA and Protein Electrophoresis Systems - IBI Scientific

    B - Electrophoresis Gel Matrix
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    B1 - Agarose Gel for DNA Electrophoresis

    Agarose gels contain larger (100 to 500 nm) and less uniform pores than acrylamide gels, making agarose optimal for nucleic acid separations, which involve larger fragments than protein separations. Agarose gels achieve better fragment separation during horizontal runs, which are designed to accommodate thicker (greater than 2 mm) gels than vertical runs.

    Compare Online: Agarose Electrophoresis Gels

    B2 - Acrylamide Electrophoresis Gel

    Acrylamide gels contain smaller (10 to 200 nm) and more uniform pores than agarose gels, making acrylamide optimal for protein separations, which involve smaller molecules than DNA and RNA separations. Acrylamide gels yield clearer fragment separation during vertical runs, which are designed to require thinner (less than 2 mm) gels than horizontal runs. Acrylamide does not polymerize, or harden, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, making acrylamide incompatible with horizontal gel boxes, which expose the gel matrix to O2 gas.

    Compare Online: Polyacrylamide Gels

    C - Electrophoresis Sample Type and Resolution
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    C1 - Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis

    For higher resolution and separation clarity, horizontal-oriented agarose gels are optimal for DNA and RNA molecules. Because horizontal gels utilize a continuous buffer system, the nucleic acid fragments are accessible during the separation procedure.

    Compare: Benchmark SmartGlow Pre-stain for Nucleic Acid Gels

    C2 - Serum Protein ElectrophoresisProtein

    For higher resolution, vertically-oriented acrylamide gels are best suited for protein molecule separation. As vertical gels utilize a discontinuous buffer system, the buffer can only flow through the gel when moving from the top to the bottom chamber, allowing for more precise control of the voltage gradient. The optimization of the voltage gradient yields higher separation clarity, ideal for linear protein strands, which may demonstrate similar molecular weights.

    D - Voltage
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    D1 - 120 Volt Electrophoresis Systems

    120-volt connections are suitable for low-voltage standard residential power outlets in the US.

    D2 - 240 Volt Electrophoresis Systems

    240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than appliances designed to operate at 120V.

    E - Electrophoresis Buffer Capacity
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    The volume and concentration of the buffer used to prepare and run the gel depends upon the application and sample type. Two commonly used buffer formulations are Tris-Acetate-EDTA (TAE) and Tris-Borate-EDTA (TBE). TAE buffer yields faster migration of linear DNA and better resolution of super-coiled or genomic DNA. TBE buffer is optimal for separation of longer DNA fragments (larger than 2 kb).

    F - Electrophoresis Gel Dimensions
    (back to chart)

    The optimal gel box size depends upon the sample type, buffering capacity and voltage level. Smaller gel boxes are ideal for separation of short, linear DNA fragments, while larger gel boxes are optimal for longer DNA fragments (larger than 2 kb).

    Where Can I Find a Trusted Supplier of Electrophoresis Equipment? offers carefully selected electrophoresis product lines from Thermo Fisher, IBI Scientific Gel Systems, Benchmark (SmartGlow) and Accuris (myGel & myVolt). Through our worldwide network of reps, we supply some of the largest research and production facilities in the world. is a laboratory speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets.

    Shop Electrophoresis Gel and Equipment by Brand

    1. IBI Electrophoresis Systems
    2. Accuris myGel
    3. Accuris myVolt
    4. Thermo Fisher Owl EasyCast
    5. Benchmark SmartGlow Pre-Stain for Nucleic Acid Gels
  • Evaporators


    IKA and Labconco evaporators and concentrators efficiently accelerate the evaporation process for high-yield production of distillates from a range of solvents
  • Gel Imaging Systems

    Gel Imaging Systems

    Gel imaging systems and transilluminators from Analytik Jena, Accuris and Benchmark Scientific for visualization of nucleic acid and protein separations
  • Homogenizers & Sonicators

    Homogenizers & Sonicators

    Homogenizers and sonicators efficiently process plant and animal tissues or disrupt cellular membranes. Select models disperse nanoparticles to create chemical emulsions.
  • Hot Plates & Stirrers

    Hot Plates & Stirrers

    Analog and digital hotplates by Thermo Fisher and Benchmark Scientific in stirring, magnetic, remote control and explosion-proof models
  • Incubators & Environmental Test Chambers

    Incubators & Environmental Test Chambers

    Compact, benchtop and large capacity incubators with mechanical, gravity or dual convection heating. CO2, refrigerated, B.O.D, drosophila and microbiological models available. Test chambers from Binder for drug stability studies.Incubator Features Overview

    Capacity Temperature Range Voltage Special Application Features Voltage Air Convection Method Construction Material

    A – Lab Incubator Capacity
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    Laboratory incubators are manufactured in a broad array of sizes, ranging from compact benchtop units smaller than 1 cubic foot to high-capacity, reach-in chambers larger than 40 cubic feet.

    Compact incubators (small-footprint, counter-top models under 6 cubic feet) are designed to house samples from a single cell culture line. For labs with limited workspace, certain benchtop incubators are compatible with stacking kits that accommodate up to 3 units.

    Floor-standing incubators (up to 20 cubic feet) are designed to isolate cultures from multiple cell lines, protecting the samples from cross-contamination.

    High volume reach-in models (larger than 20 cubic feet) include space for additional sample agitation equipment, such as incubator-safe shakers, for cell aeration and solubility studies.

    Compare Incubator Sizes and Prices

    B – Incubator Temperature Control Systems
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    Lab incubators and environmental test chambers are designed to maintain environmental conditions ideal for growing and storing bacterial and mammalian cell cultures.

    Why Use a CO2 Incubator for Cell Culture?

    CO2 incubators, used primarily to promote human cell growth, maintain a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius and a humidity level of 95% RH. Microbiological incubators are designed to sustain temperatures between 5 degrees and 70 degrees Celsius to accommodate a variety of bacterial, viral and fungal species.

    Refrigerated incubators maintain temperatures up to 40 degrees cooler than ambient conditions for fermentation studies and plant cell cultures.

    C – Incubator Construction Material
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    C1 – Aluminum Incubators

    Drosophila incubators feature day/night cycling to promote fruit fly germination and include aluminum-clad interior panels for better light refraction throughout the chamber.

    C2 – Epoxy-Coated Steel Incubators

    Epoxy-coated steel resists the most common biocides and alcohol-based disinfectants, but may be prone to corrosion in high humidity environments.

    C3 – Powder-Coated Steel Incubators

    Powder-coated steel represents an economical alternative to stainless steel, resisting most sanitizers and disinfectants. However, the powder coating may crack after prolonged exposure to bleach-based cleaners.

    C4 – Stainless Steel Incubators

    Stainless steel incubators maintain aseptic conditions within the incubator, resist all sanitizers and disinfectants, and will not corrode in high humidity environments.

    D – Environmental Incubator Air Convection Method
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    D1 – Air Jacket Incubators

    Jacketed CO2 Incubators employ two primary methods of temperature control: water-jacketed and air-jacketed internal plenums. Water-jacketed incubators offer better temperature uniformity but must be drained and cleaned weekly. Air-jacketed models are lighter, easier to transport, and maintenance-free.

    D2 – Dual Convection Incubators

    Dual convection incubators toggle between mechanical and gravity convection modes. Gravity convection models introduce heat, through a heating element, at the bottom of the internal chamber and allow gravity to cause the warmed air to rise throughout the storage area. Mechanical convection systems utilize an internal fan to distribute heated air across the internal chamber.

    D3 – Forced Air Incubators

    Similar to mechanical convection systems, forced air incubator utilize an internal or external blower to distribute heated air throughout the internal chamber. Forced air and mechanical convection incubators boast reduced recovery times after the chamber is accessed, making these designs ideal for high-throughput cell culture labs.

    D4 – Gravity Incubators

    Gravity convection incubators introduce heat into the bottom of the internal chamber and allow gravity to distribute the warmed air across the storage area as it rises. Gravity convection systems maintain lower air change rates than mechanical or forced-air units – ideal for labs storing non-aqueous samples prone to over-drying.

    D5 – Mechanical Incubators

    Mechanical convection incubators yield industry-leading temperature uniformity by utilizing a fan to distribute heated air across the internal chamber. Given their higher air change rate, mechanical convection incubators quickly warm samples transferred from cold storage without evaporating the growth media.

    E – Voltages
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    E1 – 120 Incubators

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard residential power outlets in the US.

    E2 – 240 Incubators

    240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than appliances designed to operate at 120V.

    F – Special Application Features - Incubator Function in Microbiology
    (back to chart)

    F1 – B.O.D. Incubator Applications

    Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) applications determine the amount of pollution within a water sample by quantifying the oxygen consumed by microorganisms as they decompose organic matter. BOD incubators utilize Peltier coolers to maintain precise temperature uniformity for wastewater treatment, germination studies and plant cultivation.

    View BOD Incubator Specifications

    F2 – Drosophila Culture Incubators

    Drosophila incubators maintain optimal conditions for fruit fly culturing by incorporating day-night light cycling (through an internal LED light), Peltier thermo-cooling (for over-temperature protection), and mechanical convection (for rapid temperature changes).

    F3 – High Security Incubators

    High security incubators utilize restricted access controls, such as fingerprint scanners and keycard readers, to protect high-value samples for clinical diagnostics, recombinant protein production, or gene expression.

    F4 – Small Footprint Incubators

    Compact models with optional stacking kits are ideal for crowded research labs or educational institutions with limited benchtop space.

    F5 – Incubators with Timed On/Off Cycles

    For samples with incubation protocols beyond the standard 48-hour culture cycle, advanced protocol models include digital controllers with timed on/off cycles for real-time sample monitoring.

    F6 – Incubator with UV Lighting

    The two primary methods for incubator chamber disinfection are UV sanitization and high-heat decontamination. Germicidal UV light, emitted at 254 nanometers, denatures microbial genetic material. Incubators with UV lighting are equipped with digital controllers and load presence sensors to prevent samples from UV exposure. High-heat decontamination cycles utilize hot, moist air to sterilize the inner chamber when the incubator is free of samples.

    F7 – Stackable Incubators

    Certain benchtop incubators are compatible with optional stacking kits capable of housing up to three small-footprint units. Stackable units are ideal for crowded labs culturing distinct cell lines that cannot be stored within a single incubator.

    F8 – Remote Cell Culture Monitoring Incubators

    Incubators with remote cell culture monitoring systems allow real-time, visual sample observation through a mobile app or LIMS integration.

    G – Cell Culture Incubator Humidity and Co2 Controls
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    G1 – CO2 Gas Incubators

    CO2 carbon dioxide incubators use infrared or thermocouple sensors to maintain optimal conditions for cell and tissue culture growth. Optional CO2 alarms alert operators when their gas tank requires replacement.

    G2 – Cell Culture Incubators - Humidity Control Co2 Incubators

    Eukaryotic cells grow optimally at a humidity level of 95% RH. Incubators designed for clinical diagnostics utilize infrared sensors to maintain precise humidity levels to promote human cell growth.

    G3 – O2 Gas Incubators

    For anaerobic cell culturing or hypoxia studies, certain incubators include O2 gas control to reduce oxygen levels within the incubator down to 0.1%.

    Shop CO2 Incubators by Brand

    Shop By Category and Incubator Accessories

  • Lab Consumables

    Lab Consumables

    Lab consumables including microplates, centrifuge tubes, purification and isolation kits, inoculating loops and biohazard bags.
  • Liquid Handlers & Robotics

    Liquid Handlers & Robotics

    Liquid handling and robotic instruments from Hudson for ELISA assays, PCR preparation, DNA quantitation, serial dilutions and microplate washing
  • Lyophilizers


    Labconco FreeZone Lyophilizers freeze dry samples for transport and long-term storage.
  • Microarray Products

    Microarray Products

    Arrayit microarray fluorescence and colorimetric scanners, printers and hybridization stations for DNA/RNA assays, genetic testing, proteomics and drug discovery
  • Microplate Equipment

    Microplate Equipment

    Benchtop microplate sealers, washers and readers by ACTGene, Accuris, Perkin Elmer and Vitl
  • Mills


    Benchtop lab mills from IKA for grinding, cutting and homogenization of hard, brittle, fibrous or soft materials.
  • Ovens & Furnaces

    Ovens & Furnaces

    Lab ovens and furnaces by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sheldon and Binder include advanced protocol and security models as well as high-temperature furnaces suitable for semiconductor processing
  • Mixers & Rockers

    Mixers & Rockers

    Mixers, rockers, rollers and rotators for 2-D and 3-D mixing of reagents, and samples in tubes, flasks, beakers, blot trays and microplates
  • Moisture Analyzers

    Moisture Analyzers

    Moisture Analyzers from Sartorius for analysis of food, pharmaceutical and environmental samples.
  • Overhead Stirrers

    Overhead Stirrers

    IKA Overhead Stirrers perform a range of mixing tasks for volumes from 15 to 200L; available with a wide range of stirring elements
  • Pipettes


    Mechanical and electronic pipettes and tips from Sartorius Biohit. Single-channel and multi-channel pipettors available for immediate shipment.
  • Refrigerators & Freezers

    Refrigerators & Freezers

    Refrigerators, freezers, and combo refrigerator/freezers by Thermo Fisher, Helmer, Marvel and Benchmark Scientific
  • Shakers & Vortexers

    Shakers & Vortexers

    Incubated, refrigerated, orbital and reciprocating shakers and vortexers by Thermo Fisher, Benchmark Scientific and VITL
  • Spectrophotometers & Analytical Equipment

    Spectrophotometers & Analytical Equipment

    Spectrophotometers, microscopy, FTIR and AA systems from Perkin Elmer, Biochrom and Hudson Robotics.
  • PCR Thermal Cyclers

    PCR Thermal Cyclers

    qPCR and standard PCR thermal cyclers from Analytik Jena and Biometra for robust amplification of nucleic acid sequences
  • Water Purification

    Water Purification

    Water purifications systems and accessories from Barnstead Thermo Fisher produce ASTM Type 1, 2 and 3 grade water
  • Visit


    Source your cleanroom equipment and critical environment solutions from our trusted sister site.

Lab instruments, equipment and supplies from trusted brands

Laboratory-Equipment provides innovative, quality scientific research equipment from top-tier suppliers, including Thermo Fisher, Labconco, Sartorius, PerkinElmer, IKA, Sheldon, Binder and Benchmark Scientific.

Our comprehensive portfolio includes:

Equipment:  baths, cold storage, centrifuges, furnaces, hot plates, incubators, mixers, ovens, refrigerators, shakers, water purity systems and more

Instruments:  balances, electrophoresis systems, evaporators, gel imagers, liquid handlers, lyophilizers, microplate readers, thermal cyclers, spectrophotometers and more

Supplies:  biohazard bags, buffers, gel stains, gloves, microplates, purification kits, tubes, water cartridges and more

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