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  • Autoclaves & Labware Washers

    Autoclaves & Labware Washers

    Autoclaves and labware washers disinfect liquids, media, instruments, and glassware
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  • Balances & Analytical Scales

    Balances & Analytical Scales

    Analytical, precision and top-loading balances and accessories by Sartorius. Select models available for immediate shipment.Balance Features Overview
    Sartorius laboratory balacnes

    Application-Specific FeaturesVoltageFormatWeighing Pan SizeWeighing CapacityBalance TypeSartorius Entris IISartorius PractumSartorius QuintixSartorius SecuraSartorius Cubis II

    Uses for Balances in Laboratories

    Lab balances and scales are offered in a variety of designs to measure sample mass, density, and moisture content of solids, liquids, and powders. While a scale determines the mass of a sample, a balance is designed to compare the mass of multiple samples. Balances and scales are offered in several configurations: analytical, precision, top-loading, front-loading, high-capacity and moisture analysis.

    What types of Balances are Used in a Laboratory?

    Certain balances offer additional functionality, such as data traceability (for 21CFR Part 11 compliance), integration with external devices (such as a printer, computer, or barcode reader), pipette calibration, and sample protection (such as a draft shield) for installation into a laminar flow hood or ISO-rated cleanroom.

    A - Balance Type
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Analytical Balances

    Analytical balances are optimal for most standard lab weighing operations, such as density determination, comparative mass analysis and dynamic weighing. Analytical balances measure samples to very tight tolerances, yielding readabilities down to 0.0001 grams. As analytical scales are sensitive to air current and temperature changes, most models include a draft shield to maintain a controlled measuring environment.

    Shop Analytics Balances

    A2 - Precision Balances

    Precision balances are an economical alternative to analytical balances. While precision scales support higher weight capacities than analytical models, they do not yield similar tolerances (readabilities down to 0.001 grams). Precision scales produce stable readings within environments experiencing temperature and humidity fluctuations.

    Shop Precision Balances

    A3 - High-Capacity Balances

    High-capacity balances are designed to weigh bulk powders, animals, and heavy storage containers in production environments. While analytical and precision balances accommodate weight loads of 300 grams and 600 grams respectively, high-capacity balances can measure loads up to 34,000 grams.

    Shop High-Capacity Balances

    A4 - Micro Balances

    Microbalances are designed to weigh small samples (up to 6 grams) at industry-leading tolerances (readabilities down to 0.0000001 grams). Microbalances are extremely sensitive to changes in atmospheric conditions and require recalibration on a semi-annual basis.

    B - Scale and Balance Weighing Capacity
    (back to chart)

    Laboratory balances offer a broad range of weighing capacities, from ultra-micro scales designed to measure down to the milligram and microgram levels, to high-capacity balances capable of measuring weights up to 34,000 grams. Electronic scales provide readouts in dozens of different units, including grams, milligrams, kilograms, pounds, ounces and grains.

    C - Balance Weighing Pan Size
    (back to chart)

    Laboratory balances and scales include weighing pans to accommodate a variety of sample types, including powders, liquids, solids and living organisms. Smaller, round pans are optimal for weighing low quantities of aqueous samples or powders, while larger, square pans are ideal for weighing solids or tare vessels (such as weight buckets).

    D - Balancing Loading and Format
    (back to chart)

    D1 - Front-Loading Balances

    Front-loading balances include draft shields to protect the sample from air movement and temperature fluctuations. Ionizer draft shields dissipate static charges to protect fine powders from aggregating to draft shield walls.

    D2 - Top-Loading Balances

    Top-loading balances are designed without a draft shield to provide easy access to the weighing pan. Top-loading scales are optimal for weighing bulky solids, animals, or large containers that require unobstructed access to the weighing pan.

    F - Application-Specific Features
    (back to chart)

    F1 - Balance Draft Shields

    Sartorius Modular Cubis II Micro and Ultra-Micro Balances are available with glass or stainless steel draft shields. Draft shields offer protection for fine powders or aqueous samples sensitive to air currents or static charges. Common draft shields provide access to the weighing pan from the front, top and sides.

    F2 - LIMS Integration

    Sartorius Quintix balances offer data export programs compatible with a variety of software packages, including Microsoft Office and LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System), to support sample lot traceability, workflow efficiency, and event reporting.

    F3 - Auto Calibration of Balances

    Sartorius Secura and Quintix balances include isoCAL software to support automatic or user-determined instrument recalibration routines at monthly intervals or after balance relocation.

    F4 - USP Compliance

    Sartorius Cubis II (PDF), Quintix, and Secura balances automatically log all recorded measurements for daily export and review per USP <797> and <800> guidelines.

    F5 - 21CFR Part 11 Compliance

    The Sartorius Cubis II balance includes end-to-end data integrity, safe data transfer, electronic signatures for controlled data access, and audit trailing for 21CFR Part 11 compliance.

    Buy Online: Cubis II Ultra-Micro and Microbalances by Sartorius

    Where Can I Find a Trusted Supplier of Lab Balances and Other Laboratory Equipment?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab balances and equipment for applications including PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

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  • Baths & Chillers

    Baths & Chillers

    Water baths, dry baths and chillers for sample incubation, reagent heating and external temperature control of analytical instruments
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  • Calorimeters

    Calorimeters

    Space-saving, low-cost calorimeters determine gross calorific values of liquid and solid samples; capable of measuring in adiabatic, isoperibolic, dynamic and time-controlled modesCalorimeter Features Overview

    Measurement ModesVoltageCooling MethodMaximum Working TemperatureSpecial FeaturesMeasurement ModesIKA C6000IKA C200IKA C1

    What is a Calorimeter?

    Laboratory calorimeters measure the enthalpy, or heat transfer under constant pressure, produced or absorbed by a chemical reaction or a change in a material’s physical state. For non-combustible materials, calorimeters are used to determine the sample’s heat capacity. Once the liquid or solid sample is combusted, the resulting temperature change, from the endothermic or exothermic reaction, is reported and used to determine the heat transfer resulting from the reaction.

    How Does a Calorimeter Work?

    Calorimeters include a decomposition vessel (also called a bomb), in which the solid or liquid sample is placed. The sample, housed within a crucible, is connected to an ignition wire by a cotton thread. The bomb vessel is then filled with an excess of oxygen to burn or combust the sample.

    During combustion, the temperature of the decomposition vessel increases to near 1,000°C. To prevent disruptive external temperature or humidity influences, the entire system is encased in an insulated plenum, or jacket. 

    The heat produced during the reaction is captured and measured using different methods: adiabatic, dynamic, isoperibolic, static-jacketed, or double-dried. The results are displayed on a digital readout connected to a software program capable of saving methods and exporting data.

    Calorimeters are utilized in many industries, including geothermal testing, injection molding, radionuclide characterization, and natural gas testing.

    A - Calorimeter Cooling Method
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Oxygen Bomb Calorimeters

    An oxygen bomb calorimeter or steel decomposition vessel containing the sample and high-pressure oxygen, is submerged in water while the mixture is ignited to ensure the energy produced by the reaction is contained.

    A2 - Water Flow Calorimeters

    Water-flow calorimeters feature a fluid reservoir, with automatic filling and draining, connected to an optional water heater or chiller for precise temperature control.

    B - Maximum Calorimeter Working Temperature
    (back to chart)

    The maximum working temperature is the highest permissible ambient temperature under which the calorimeter can efficiently operate. As external conditions may impact the accuracy of results, all calorimeters must be operated under precisely controlled temperatures.

    25°C

    30°C

    C - Measurement Modes
    (back to chart)

    C1 - Adiabatic Calorimeters

    Adiabatic calorimeters ensure the temperature inside the insulated plenum, or jacket, remains equal to the temperature within the decomposition vessel during the test run. As an adiabatic system approaches perfect insulation, no correction calculations are required to account for external influences.

    C2 - Dynamic Calorimeters

    Dynamic calorimeters utilize the same measurement process as adiabatic systems, but the run time is shortened. Although the measurement results will fall within a standard deviation of the official standards, the accuracy and precision may be slightly lower. Dynamic calorimeters are commonly used in high-throughput labs processing a high volume of samples.

    C3 - Isoperibolic Calorimeters

    Isoperibolic calorimeters ensure the temperature within the jacket, or plenum, remains constant throughout the test run, resulting in lower heat flow. As an isoperibolic system does not trend toward perfect insulation, ambient conditions are tightly controlled to reduce temperature fluctuations. After the test, a correction factor is calculated and applied to the results.

    C4 - Manual Calorimeters

    IKA C200 calorimeters include a manual isoperibolic mode for employee training or higher education labs. The automated functions are switched off to allow for a trainer or professor to operate the system in a step-by-step fashion.

    C5 - Static Jacket Calorimeters

    In a static jacket calorimeter, the air-filled aluminum jacket is not temperature controlled. Although the air within the jacket plenum acts as a buffer to protect the calorimeter housing and sample vessel, a correction calculation must be applied to measured results, much like an isoperibolic system.

    C6 - Timed Calorimeters

    Double-dry (timed) calorimeters measure the temperature increase in the decomposition vessel rather than transferring the heat to the water inside the inner vessel, like isoperibolic and adiabatic systems. Without the heat transfer step, measurement times are reduced down to 3 minutes for standard samples. Double-dry calorimeters are commonly used by the waste management industry.

    D - Calorimeter Voltage
    (back to chart)

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States. 

    240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

    E - Special Features
    (back to chart)

    E1 - Calorimeter Chiller

    Recirculating chillers improve reproducibility by regulating water conditions to provide stable starting temperatures for calorimetric measurements. 

    IKA RC2 basic recirculating chillers feature a 4 liter storage capacity and 400-Watt motor to cool water down to -20°C.

    E2 - Halogen Resistant Calorimeter

    For samples with high halogen content, IKA calorimeters include an optional, steel, halogen-resistant combustion chamber with catalytic-activated inner surface.

    E3 - Compact Footprint Calorimeter

    IKA’s C1 Calorimeter is the smallest commercially-available model on the market. Less thanthe one cubic foot in size, the C1 is optimal for crowded benchtop spaces in busy, shared-use labs.

    Where Can I Buy Calorimeters Online?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of laboratory calorimeters, stirrers, shakers, and other equipment for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

    Shop Calorimeters by Model

    IKA C1

    IKA C200

    IKA C6000

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  • Centrifuges

    Centrifuges

    Micro,benchtop and high-speed centrifuges from Thermo Fisher, Benchmark and Hermle
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  • Chromatography

    Chromatography

    HPLC, UPLC and UHPLC Liquid Chromatography Systems
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  • Liquid Nitrogen Dewars

    Liquid Nitrogen Dewars

    Cryogenic systems and dewars from Thermo Fisher and Worthington for long-term storage of blood, infectious disease and cell culture samples.Liquid Nitrogen Storage Features Overview
    HC Series High-Capacity Cryogenic Refrigerators by Worthington Industries in six capacity sizes; accessories available

    Vessel DesignApplicationStatic Holding TimeLiquid Nitrogen CapacityVial Storage CapacityAplication Specific FeaturesThermo Fisher Bio-Cane SystemThermo Fisher Arctic Express Dry ShipperThermo Fisher Liquid Nitrogen Transfer VesselThermo Fisher Thermo-Flask ContainerIC Biomedical LABS Series FreezerIC Biomedical K Series FreezerIC Biomedical LS Series RefrigeratorIC Biomedical HC Series RefrigeratorIC Biomedical CX & CXR Series Vapor ShippersIC Biomedical LD Series DewarIC Biomedical XT Series RefrigeratorThermo Fisher Locator System

    Liquid nitrogen vessels are designed to support long-term storage of samples at cryogenic temperatures (-196°C to -210°C). The process of cryo-preservation is widely used in clinical diagnostics, immunotherapy development, food and beverage, and semiconductor storage. Samples prepared with cryo-protectants, such as DMSO, can remain viable for up to a decade when stored in liquid nitrogen.

    Liquid Nitrogen Tanks and Styles

    Liquid nitrogen tanks are manufactured in two primary styles:

    Cryogenic freezers are designed as sample retrieval systems (with locking lids, low liquid level indicators, and audible alarms) or IATA-approved shipping vessels for global sample transport.

    A - Liquid Nitrogen Vessel Design
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Benchtop

    Benchtop liquid nitrogen containers are designed for point-of-use, short-term sample storage or transfer of LN2 into a shipping vessel or cold trap. Benchtop dewars store fewer than 10 liters of liquid nitrogen and do not include sample storage racks. Certain benchtop vessels include carrying handles for easy transport and vented lids to prevent over-pressurization.

    A2 - Free-Standing Liquid Nitrogen Systems

    Free-standing liquid nitrogen systems are optimal for long-term sample storage within a cryogenic environment. Select models include cryo-box racks for easy sample identification, low liquid level alarms to maintain cryo-preservation conditions, and locking lids for high-security areas. High-capacity, free-standing systems are designed to store more than 10,000 samples and over 300 liters of liquid nitrogen.

    View All Liquid Nitrogen Dewars

    B - Application
    (back to chart)

    B1 - Long-Term Storage System

    Nitrogen Storage Systems for Cryogenics

    Long-term sample storage and retrieval systems include racks compatible with 81-cell or 100-cell cryogenic boxes to maximize sample capacity. Certain systems include locking lids for added sample protection and wheeled bases for easy transport. Low liquid level alarms alert users when an LN2 refill is required.

    Shop LN2 Tanks and LN2 Containers

    Low-capacity systems store less than 200 samples while high-capacity systems store more than 10,000 samples. Static holding times vary from less than 20 days to more than 300 days.

    Shop N2 Storage Systems for Cryogenics

    B2 - Liquid Nitrogen Transfer Vessel

    Benchtop transfer vessels are designed to transport liquid nitrogen from a holding tank to a sample storage system or shipping vessel. Select transfer vessels are compatible with pressurized liquid withdrawal devices to prevent LN2 spillage and evaporation.

    Liquid Nitrogen Transfer Vessels by Thermo Fisher Scientific

    B3 - Liquid Nitrogen Dry Shipper

    Dry shipping vessels maintain cryogenic conditions for global sample transport. Select units include secure data-logging systems for 21CFR Part 11 compliance.

    C - Liquid Nitrogen Vial Storage Capacity
    (back to chart)

    Cryogenic storage systems utilize racks compatible with 81-cell or 100-cell cryo-boxes to maximize sample capacity. Samples are generally stored in 1.5 ml or 2 ml cryo-tubes or twist-cap vials. Low-capacity systems are designed to store fewer than 1,000 samples, while high-capacity containers store more than 10,000 samples.

    View: Liquid Nitrogen Storage Systems with Racks

    D - Liquid Nitrogen Capacity
    (back to chart)

    For laboratories without a liquid nitrogen delivery service, cryogenic vessels are earmarked as long-term LN2 holding tanks to supply sample storage systems and cold traps used throughout the lab.

    For labs purchasing an LN2 holding tank, a critical specification is liquid nitrogen storage capacity. Low-throughput systems store fewer than 50 liters of liquid nitrogen, while high-throughput tanks store more than 200 liters.

    E - Liquid Nitrogen Static Holding Time
    (back to chart)

    Static holding time is the length of time listed in days, during which the cryogenic tank retains the supplied volume of liquid nitrogen. This metric, however, presumes that the container is not accessed during the stated period of time. LN2 evaporation will occur each time the cryogenic tank is opened.

    Narrow-neck pressurized containers are designed to reduce LN2 evaporation rates, whereas wide-neck dewars allow for greater liquid nitrogen evaporation each time the container is opened.

    F - Liquid Nitrogen Application-Specific Features
    (back to chart)

    F1 - Low LN2 Level Alarm for Cryogenic Tanks

    Certain cryogenic tanks, such as Thermo Fisher Locator Storage Systems, include ultrasonic level monitors with continuous digital LED readouts and audible/visual alarms when liquid nitrogen levels fall below set-point.

    Shop Cryogenic Tanks with Alarms

    F2 - Liquid Nitrogen Rack System

    Sample storage systems accommodate stainless steel and aluminum racks for easy retrieval of cryo-storage boxes. Racks are compatible with 81-cell or 100 cell boxes for 2 ml cryo-tubes or 1.5 ml twist-cap vials. Certain models offer racks compatible with 5 ml high-capacity vials.

    F3 - Liquid Nitrogen Locking System

    For high-security sample storage, certain LN2 containers include locking lids equipped with optional padlocks, keypads or fingerprint scanners.

    Shop N2 Storage with Locks

    Shop Liquid Nitrogen Tanks and Storage Products

    Where Can I Buy Liquid Nitrogen Vessels and Storage Freezers?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of liquid nitrogen storage vessels, dewars, dry shippers, and freezers.

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  • Dispersers

    Dispersers

    IKA hand-held and stand-mounted dispersers for homogenization, emulsification and suspension of miscible samplesDisperser Features Overview
    IKA S10 N5G Dispersing Element

    Maximum SizeMaximum VolumeControllerConfigurationMotor RatingSpecial FeaturesVoltageSpeed ControlIKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 10IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 18IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 25IKA ULTRA-TURRAX UTL 25IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 50IKA ULTRA-TURRAX T 65IKA ULTRA-TURRAX Tube Drive

    What is a Lab Disperser? How is it Different from a Homogenizer?

    Laboratory dispersers, sometimes referred to as high-speed shearers or rotor-stator mixers, are a type of overhead stirrer designed to disperse, rather than mix, compounds. As opposed to homogenizers, which uniformly mix two or more miscible components, dispersers create a mixture of two or more immiscible components owing to liquid-liquid or solid-liquid phase separations. Popular dispersions include emulsions (liquid particles dispersed into another liquid) or grind dispersions (solid particles dispersed into a liquid).

    What are Lab Dispersers Used For?

    Laboratory dispersers are used in the biotechnology industry to form liquid biomolecular condensates, the food industry to produce vinaigrettes or homogenized milk, the pharmaceutical industry to create creams, ointments and salves, and the chemical industry to manufacture polymers, such as rubber or latex.

    Dispersers are composed of a high-speed, spinning rotor connected to a stationary stator tube, regulated by an analog or digital controller. Interchangeable dispersing elements, such as cutting heads, propellers, dissolvers and saw tooth grinders, are installed onto the stator tube for different shearing applications. Although small-scale dispersers may be operated by hand, most models are mounted to a telescoping base stand for stability.

    A - Lab Disperser Configuration
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Batch Lab Dispersers

    Laboratory batch dispersers are designed for continuous mixing of bulk samples (up to 30 liters in volume), such as paint formulations, adhesives, ceramics, and oils. As sample viscosities change during the dispersion process, batch models are designed to maintain mixing speeds. Since batch processing may expose the emulsion to airborne contaminants, batch dispersers are not appropriate for sterile samples.

    Shop Batch Lab Dispersers Online

    A2 - Inline Lab Dispersers

    Inline lab dispersers are designed for sterile, air-free, pressurized suspension, emulsification, and deagglomeration of inline fluid samples, such as pharmaceutical filling lines. Inline dispersers process smaller volumes than batch dispersers, but reach high speeds than most high-volume models.

    Shop Inline Lab Dispersers Online

    B - Lab Disperser Maximum Speed
    (back to chart)

    Low-speed lab dispersers maintain mixing speeds of 6,000 to 10,000 rpm for applications such as premixes, balms, food gums and polymers. High-speed models boast mixing speeds up to 30,000 rpm for applications like tissue and cell homogenization.

    Shop Lab Dispersers by Rotation Speed

    C - Lab Disperser Maximum Volume
    (back to chart)

    Low-throughput batch dispersers and inline dispersers are designed to process samples between 26 ml and 2 liters in volume. High-throughput batch dispersers accommodate samples up to 50 liters in volume.

    D - Lab Disperser Voltage
    (back to chart)

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

    400-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

    E - Speed Control
    (back to chart)

    E1: Stepless Lab Disperser

    Stepless lab dispersers offer a full range of speed controls including small rpm increments for operations calling for specific mixing speeds.

    E2: Fixed Lab Disperser

    Fixed lab dispersers do not include speed range controls. These models are optimal for recurring mixing operations specifying one mixing speed.

    F - Lab Disperser Controllers
    (back to chart)

    F1: Analog Lab Dispersers

    Analog lab dispersers controllers include a speed dial and power switch. Economic alternative to digital models, these units do not include on-board software with timers and data export capabilities.

    F2: Digital Lab Dispersers

    Digital lab disperser controllers include a speed dial with LED readout of current mixing speed. Certain digital models, like IKA’s ULTRA-TURRAX T 65 disperser, include red emergency stop buttons for immediate shutdown.

    G - Special Lab Disperser Features
    (back to chart)

    G1: Autoclave-Safe Lab Dispersers

    Certain models, like IKA’s ULTRA-TURRAX T 25, are compatible with autoclave-safe dispersing elements for hands-free sterilization.

    G2: Lab Dispersers with Data Export

    IKA’s ULTRA-TURRAX Tube Drive system includes software to document performance and program saved methods as well as a USB interface to export data.

    H - Lab Disperser Motor Rating
    (back to chart)

    Models designed for low-volume, low-viscosity stirring contain motors generating 17 – 300 Watts. High-volume, high-viscosity models contain motors generating 500 – 2,200 Watts.

    High-Speed Disperser Manufacturers - Shop and Compare Lab Disperser Models

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab equipment including dispersers, shakers, stirrers, and cold storage for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

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  • Electrophoresis Systems

    Electrophoresis Systems

    Gel electrophoresis systems from Thermo Fisher, Benchmark Scientific, Accuris and IBI Scientific for separation of nucleic acids and proteins. Select models, reagents, kits stains and dyes in stock for immediate shipment.Gel Electrophoresis Systems Feature Overview
    Owl EasyCast B2 Mini-Gel System with Combs by Thermo Fisher Scientific

    Electrophoresis Gel DimensionsVoltageConstruction MaterialElectrophoresis Gel MatrixElectrophoresis Gel ConfigurationElectrophoresis Sample Type and ResolutionThermo Fisher Owl EasyCast B1 GelThermo Fisher Owl EasyCast B2 GelIBI Scientific Gel SystemsAccuris myGel

    What is Gel Electrophoresis?

    Gel electrophoresis systems utilize a porous, electrically-charged gel matrix to separate distinct nucleic acid and protein sequences based on molecular weight (or fragment size). The gel box is designed to include a cathode, or negatively-charged electrode, at one end of the medium and an anode, or positive-charged electrode, at the opposite end.

    Electrophoresis Protocol

    The gel box is filled with an ionic buffer that creates an electrical field when the cathode and anode are connected to power. As proteins, DNA and RNA molecules carry an intrinsic negative charge; the fragments migrate through the gel medium toward the anode. The speed of migration correlates to the size of the fragment; smaller molecules will move faster through the porous gel than larger, slower molecules. Once completed, the gel run results in unique bands of nucleic acids or proteins separated by molecular weight. Compared against a positive control ladder for reference, the appropriate fragments are excised from the gel for further purification.

    A - Electrophoresis Gel Configuration
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Electrophoresis Systems

    Horizontal Electrophoresis Gels cast in a horizontal gel orientation are used primarily for nucleic acid separation within an agarose matrix. As the pores within an agarose gel are larger than the pores within a polyacrylamide gel, the DNA and RNA molecules, which are larger than protein molecules, are better suited to migrate effectively through agarose. Since horizontal systems expose the gel matrix to atmospheric oxygen, agarose is chosen as the preferred medium over polyacrylamide, which does not polymerize in the presence of O2 gas.

    View Online: Thermo Fisher Gel Horizontal Electrophoresis

    A2 - Vertical Electrophoresis Systems

    Vertical Electrophoresis Gels cast in a vertical orientation are used primarily for protein separation within an acrylamide matrix. As acrylamide pores are smaller in diameter than agarose pores, acrylamide gels yield a higher resolution and greater separation of proteins, which are smaller than nucleic acid fragments. Since vertical systems require a thinner (less than 2 mm) gel, acrylamide is the optimal choice over agarose, which contains larger gel pores that inhibit fragment migration through a thinner matrix. Learn more about the differences between horizontal vs vertical gel electrophoresis systems.

    View Online: Horizontal DNA and Protein Electrophoresis Systems - IBI Scientific

    B - Electrophoresis Gel Matrix
    (back to chart)

    B1 - Agarose Gel for DNA Electrophoresis

    Agarose gels contain larger (100 to 500 nm) and less uniform pores than acrylamide gels, making agarose optimal for nucleic acid separations, which involve larger fragments than protein separations. Agarose gels achieve better fragment separation during horizontal runs, which are designed to accommodate thicker (greater than 2 mm) gels than vertical runs.

    Compare Online: Agarose Electrophoresis Gels

    B2 - Acrylamide Electrophoresis Gel

    Acrylamide gels contain smaller (10 to 200 nm) and more uniform pores than agarose gels, making acrylamide optimal for protein separations, which involve smaller molecules than DNA and RNA separations. Acrylamide gels yield clearer fragment separation during vertical runs, which are designed to require thinner (less than 2 mm) gels than horizontal runs. Acrylamide does not polymerize, or harden, in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, making acrylamide incompatible with horizontal gel boxes, which expose the gel matrix to O2 gas.

    Compare Online: Polyacrylamide Gels

    C - Electrophoresis Sample Type and Resolution
    (back to chart)

    C1 - Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis

    For higher resolution and separation clarity, horizontal-oriented agarose gels are optimal for DNA and RNA molecules. Because horizontal gels utilize a continuous buffer system, the nucleic acid fragments are accessible during the separation procedure.

    Compare: Benchmark SmartGlow Pre-stain for Nucleic Acid Gels

    C2 - Serum Protein ElectrophoresisProtein

    For higher resolution, vertically-oriented acrylamide gels are best suited for protein molecule separation. As vertical gels utilize a discontinuous buffer system, the buffer can only flow through the gel when moving from the top to the bottom chamber, allowing for more precise control of the voltage gradient. The optimization of the voltage gradient yields higher separation clarity, ideal for linear protein strands, which may demonstrate similar molecular weights.

    D - Voltage
    (back to chart)

    D1 - 120 Volt Electrophoresis Systems

    120-volt connections are suitable for low-voltage standard residential power outlets in the US.

    D2 - 240 Volt Electrophoresis Systems

    240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than appliances designed to operate at 120V.

    E - Electrophoresis Buffer Capacity
    (back to chart)

    The volume and concentration of the buffer used to prepare and run the gel depends upon the application and sample type. Two commonly used buffer formulations are Tris-Acetate-EDTA (TAE) and Tris-Borate-EDTA (TBE). TAE buffer yields faster migration of linear DNA and better resolution of super-coiled or genomic DNA. TBE buffer is optimal for separation of longer DNA fragments (larger than 2 kb).

    F - Electrophoresis Gel Dimensions
    (back to chart)

    The optimal gel box size depends upon the sample type, buffering capacity and voltage level. Smaller gel boxes are ideal for separation of short, linear DNA fragments, while larger gel boxes are optimal for longer DNA fragments (larger than 2 kb).

    Where Can I Find a Trusted Supplier of Electrophoresis Equipment?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com offers carefully selected electrophoresis product lines from Thermo Fisher, IBI Scientific Gel Systems, Benchmark (SmartGlow) and Accuris (myGel & myVolt). Through our worldwide network of reps, we supply some of the largest research and production facilities in the world. Laboratory-Equipment.com is a laboratory speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets.

    Shop Electrophoresis Gel and Equipment by Brand

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  • Evaporators

    Evaporators

    IKA and Labconco evaporators and concentrators efficiently accelerate the evaporation process for high-yield production of distillates from a range of solventsEvaporators Features Overview
    Rotary evaporators

    Special FeaturesControllerSpecial FeaturesStyleVoltageControlsMaximum TemperaturecapacityLabconco RapidVap VertexLabconco RapidVap N2Labconco RapidVapLabconco CentriVapIKA RV 10

    Laboratory evaporators remove solvents, such as acetone, methanol, DMSO or water, from aqueous samples for solvent recycling or distillation, sample purification, compound separation, or sample concentration.

    How Do Lab Evaporators Work?

    Lab evaporators use four primary methods to eliminate solvents: heat, centripetal force, vacuum, and nitrogen gas blow-down. Evaporators are designed as benchtop systems for daily use in pharmaceutical drug development, life science R&D, and wet chemistry laboratories.

    A - Evaporator Configuration
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Evaporators

    Evaporators apply heat directly to the sample, using a heating block or water bath, while generating a vortex motion within the sample tube, or flask. The vortex motion, which continuously mixes the sample, increases the sample’s surface area to boost evaporation rates.

    Evaporators accommodate samples, housed in test tubes or flasks, from 5 ml to 3,000 ml in volume

    What Are Laboratory Evaporators Used For?

    Evaporators are used for environmental testing, toxicology studies, food chemistry and microbiology R&D, evaporation yields a small aqueous sample containing the analyte.

    A2 - Evaporator Concentrators

    Evaporator concentrators do not directly apply heat to the sample, but generate a centripetal motion within the sample tube to evaporate the solvent. The spinning motion decreases the sample’s surface area, reducing evaporation rates and lengthening evaporation times.

    Evaporator Concentrator Capacity

    Concentrators accommodate smaller sample sizes than evaporators, generally up to 50 ml in volume (and housed in microplates or centrifuge tubes).

    How Are Evaporator Concentrators Used?

    Evaporator concentrators are commonly used in life science for purification of peptide and nucleic acid samples, concentrators yield a small pellet at the bottom of the sample tube.

    B - Evaporation Method
    (back to chart)

    B1 - Centrifugal Evaporators

    Centrifugal evaporators utilize heat, applied to the samples through a heating block, and vacuum pressure, applied by a diaphragm vacuum pump, to remove solvent from the samples. The samples are loaded into rotors capable of spinning up to 5,000 rpm to ensure the liquid sample stays within the tube during evaporation. As the heating rate is tightly controlled through a digital controller, centrifugal evaporators are optimal for heat-sensitive samples.

    B2 - Rotary Evaporators

    Rotary evaporators, or roto-vaps, include a heating bath, dry ice condenser or chiller, solvent collecting vessel, vacuum pump and rotating distillation flask. The distillation apparatus rotates the flask above the heating bath to boil off the solvent – commonly acetone, ethanol, or DI water – which is captured and condensed back into its liquid phase by the dry ice cold trap or chiller. The collection vessel stores the purified solvent for further processing. Rotary evaporators accommodate samples up to 3 liters in volume (larger than the maximum sample capacities of nitrogen blow-down or centrifugal systems).

    Rotary Evaporator Solvents and Chemicals

    Roto-vaps are capable of capturing volatile solvents, like ether or methylene chloride, or polar aprotic solvents, like DMF.

    B3 - Heated Gas Nitrogen Evaporators

    Blow-down evaporators combine heat with a steady stream of nitrogen, along with vortex motion, to evaporate samples. More economical than centrifugal or rotary systems, nitrogen blow-down evaporators are not optimal for high-volume or high-boiling point samples.

    C - Evaporator Capacity
    (back to chart)

    Nitrogen Blow-Down Evaporators

    Nitrogen blow-down evaporators are ideal for smaller-volume samples between 100 ul and 10 ml; the total volume of all samples during a single evaporation run should not exceed 60 ml.

    Centrifugal and Rotary Evaporator Capcity

    Centrifugal evaporators and vacuum concentrators accommodate samples larger than nitrogen blow-down systems but smaller than roto-vaps; common runs should not exceed 450 ml. Rotary evaporators process high-volume samples up to 3 liters in volume.

    D - Evaporator Voltage
    (back to chart)

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

    208-volt or 240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

    E - Maximum Evaporator Sample Quantity
    (back to chart)

    Labconco’s RapidVap N2 nitrogen blow-down evaporator accommodates small runs up to 8 samples.

    RapidVap Vertex models accommodate up to 50 samples.

    For high-throughput labs, Labconco’s RapidVap system features a maximum capacity of 110 samples.

    F - Evaporator Chamber Material
    (back to chart)

    F1 - Aluminum

    Aluminum evaporator chambers are optimal for aqueous samples containing water or low concentration acidic solvents (between 0.1% and 1%).

    F2 - Stainless Steel

    Stainless steel evaporator chambers are optimal for aqueous samples containing high concentration acidic solvents (above 1%), like methanol or DMF.

    G - Controller
    (back to chart)

    G1 - Analog Evaporators

    Labconco’s RapidVap Vertex Evaporators include a pressure regulator, nitrogen switch controls to each of the 5 rows of gas nozzles, a temperature sensor, and a run timer.

    G2 - Digital Evaporators

    Digital controllers include LCD panels displaying current vortex speed, heating block temperature, and vacuum levels. Push-button controls allow users to design and save up to 9 different programs.

    H - Special Features
    (back to chart)

    H1 - Heated Evaporator Lid

    Lid heaters improve sample visibility and eliminate solvent condensation when applications involve high-boiling point solvents.

    H2 - RS-232 Port

    RS-232 ports are located on the rear of the unit for two-way communication with a printer or laptop computer.

    H3 - Shatterproof Glassware

    Optional shatterproof glassware is available for applications involving volatile chemicals.

    H4 - Vortex Motion

    Microprocessor-controlled programming regulates vortex speeds up to 1,000 rpm.

    Find Evaporator Manufacturers Online

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served the life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop a wide selection of evaporators online for a wide variety of food, pharmaceutical, laboratory, and analytical environments.

    Contact a Laboratory-equipment.com specialist through web chat, email, or phone for pricing or a same-day quote.

    Shop Evaporators by Brand and Style

    IKA

    Labconco

    CentriVap

    RapidVap

    RV 10

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  • Gel Imaging Systems

    Gel Imaging Systems

    Gel imaging systems and transilluminators from Analytik Jena, Accuris and Benchmark Scientific for visualization of nucleic acid and protein separations
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  • Homogenizers & Sonicators

    Homogenizers & Sonicators

    Homogenizers and sonicators efficiently process plant and animal tissues or disrupt cellular membranes. Select models disperse nanoparticles to create chemical emulsions.
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  • Hot Plates & Stirrers

    Hot Plates & Stirrers

    Analog and digital hotplates by Thermo Fisher and Benchmark Scientific in stirring, magnetic, remote control and explosion-proof modelsHot Plates Features Overview
    Laboratory hot plates

    Maximum Stirring SpeedMaximum TemperatureApplication-Specific FeaturesControllerMaterialDesignVoltageBenchmark Scientific Biomega Hot PlatesBenchmark Scientific MiniMag StirrerThermo Fisher Micro Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Remote Control Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Super Nuova Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Explosion Proof Hot PlatesThermo Fisher General Purpose Hot PlatesThermo Fisher RT Series Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Cimarec Hot PlatesThermo Fisher Cimarex I Telesystem

    What is a Laboratory Hot Plate?

    Laboratory hot plates consist of a heating element installed underneath a plate surface, manufactured from conductive steel or plastic, connected to a digital or analog controller.

    What is a Laboratory Hot Plate Used For?

    Ubiquitous in clinical, production and research labs, hot plates are used to slowly and safely heat samples, reagents and chemicals without the dangers associated with the open flame of a Bunsen burner.

    Stirring Hot Plate Styles, Components, and Types

    Stirrer hot plates are equipped with an overhead or magnetic stirring apparatus to mix the sample during the heating process, ensuring more complete temperature uniformity. For operator protection, hot plates include several safeguards, including over-temperature prevention, audible and visual alarms, and non-sparking components for flammable or explosive samples.

    A - Heater Stirrer Plate Design
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Hot Plate

    Standard temperature control hot plates do not include a stirring apparatus for sample mixing during the heating process. More economical than stirring hot plates, standard hot stirrer plates are reliable workhorses requiring minimal maintenance and re-calibration routines.

    A2 - Magnetic Stirrer with Hot Plates

    Magnetic stirring hotplates contain an electromagnet, installed underneath the plate surface, which produces a rotating magnetic field across the plate. The magnetic field causes a stirring bar, immersed within the sample, to spin at a predefined speed (up to 2,500 rpm). Magnetic stirrers do not include a heating element.

    A3 - Stirring Hot Plate

    Stirring hot plates contain both a stirring apparatus and heating element installed underneath the plate surface for even stirring as the sample heats. While stirring hot plates are more expensive than magnetic hot plate stirrersmagnetic stirrers or standard hot plates, they provide better heating uniformity for high-volume (over 500 ml) and highly-viscous samples.

    B - Hot Plate Material
    (back to chart)

    B1 - Aluminum Hot Plates

    Aluminum hot plate surfaces provide better temperature uniformity than ceramic, polypropylene, or stainless steel. More durable and harder to crack, aluminum-top plates are optimal for high-throughput operations involving steel beakers.

    Buy Aluminum Hot Plates

    B2 - Ceramic Hot Plates

    Ceramic hot plates are resistant to corrosion and withstand temperatures above 350°C. Ceramic’s white surface optimizes viewing of samples obscured by aluminum or steel plates. Ceramic tops are susceptible to heat shock from metal cylinders, so ceramic is an ideal choice for samples heated in glass beakers.

    Buy Ceramic Hot Plates

    B3 - Polypropylene Hot Plates

    Polypropylene hot plates resist s harsh chemicals, acids and solvents, but do does not reach temperatures as high as ceramic or aluminum. Polypropylene hot plates are optimal for wet chemistry work involving solvents like methanol, acetonitrile and ethanol.

    Buy Polypropylene Hot Plates

    B4 - Stainless Steel Hot Plates

    Stainless steel hot plates resists corrosion, most alcohols and ethers, and promotepromotes aseptic conditions. Stainless steel hot plates are optimal for ISO-grade cleanrooms, cGMP spaces and USP-compliant facilities.

    Thermo Fisher Scientific Stainless Steel Hot Plates

    C - Hot Plate Temperatures
    (back to chart)

    Standard hot plates carry a maximum temperature of 250°C to 350°C.

    High-temperature hot plates, such as Thermo Fisher’s Cimarec line, maintain temperatures up to 540°C for high-boiling point solvents.

    Incubator-safe hot plates are used with bacterial and mammalian cell cultures to achieve optimal growth conditions, such as 37°C or 45°C.

    D - Hot Plate Voltage
    (back to chart)

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States. 240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

    E - Hot Plate Controllers and Heating Types
    (back to chart)

    E1 - Digital Hot Plates

    Hot plates with digital controllers include on-board software for saving programs, PLC readouts to monitor temperature output, and up/down keys to quickly alter ramp rates. Advanced controllers include password protection, data export and over-temperature alarms.

    Buy Digital Hot Plates and Stirrers

    E2 - Analog Hot Plates

    Hot plates with analog controllers include dials to modify temperature set points and audible over-temperature alarms. More economical than digital hot plates, analog models require limited maintenance and re-calibration.

    Shop Analog Hot Plates

    F - Maximum Hot Plate Stirring Speed
    (back to chart)

    Analog stirring hot plates with overhead stirrers reach speeds up to 1,200 rpm for mixing of samples and solvents. For viscous and high-volume samples, digital stirring hot plates utilize electromagnets and stirring bars to reach speeds up to 2,500 rpm.

    G - Application-Specific Features
    (back to chart)

    G1 - Compact Hot Plates

    Optimal for crowded lab spaces and shared-use core facilities, small-footprint hot plates use limited benchtop space without sacrificing performance.

    G2 - Explosion-Proof Hot Plates

    Thermo Fisher’s explosion-proof hot plate is suitable for Class 1 location and Group D atmospheres housing explosive liquids and powders.

    Buy Explosion Proof Hot Plates

    G3 - Incubator-Safe Hot Plates

    Optimal for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture work, incubator-safe hot plates maintain temperatures ideal for cell line growth and resist moisture-based corrosion.

    G4 - Remote-Controlled Hot Plates

    Remote-controlled hot plates include extension cords to allow users to operate the hot plate without risking chemical exposure. Ideal for units installed on wet processing decks or within fume hoods,

    Where Can I Buy Hot Plates and Lab Stirrers Online?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California,

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab hot plates and stirrer equipment for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

    Shop Hot Plates by Model

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  • Incubators & Environmental Test Chambers

    Incubators & Environmental Test Chambers

    Compact, benchtop and large capacity incubators with mechanical, gravity or dual convection heating. CO2, refrigerated, B.O.D, drosophila and microbiological models available. Test chambers from Binder for drug stability studies.Incubator Features Overview
    Incubators

    Air Convection MethodVoltageVoltageTemperature RangeSpecial Application FeaturesCapacityConstruction MaterialShel Lab B.O.D.Thermo Fisher Refrigerated BODThermo Fisher HeracellBenchmark ST-45 & ST-180Shel Lab SCO6ADBINDER CB/CB-SBenchmark myTemp CO2Benchmark SureTherm CO2Thermo Fisher Reach In CO2Thermo Fisher Midi 40Benchmark SureTempBenchmark myTempShel Lab Fruit FlyThermo Fisher HerathermBINDER BD AvantgardeThermo Fisher PrecisionThermo Fisher Heratherm SecurityThermo Fisher Heratherm

    A – Lab Incubator Capacity
    (back to chart)

    Laboratory incubators are manufactured in a broad array of sizes, ranging from compact benchtop units smaller than 1 cubic foot to high-capacity, reach-in chambers larger than 40 cubic feet.

    Compact incubators (small-footprint, counter-top models under 6 cubic feet) are designed to house samples from a single cell culture line. For labs with limited workspace, certain benchtop incubators are compatible with stacking kits that accommodate up to 3 units.

    Floor-standing incubators (up to 20 cubic feet) are designed to isolate cultures from multiple cell lines, protecting the samples from cross-contamination.

    High volume reach-in models (larger than 20 cubic feet) include space for additional sample agitation equipment, such as incubator-safe shakers, for cell aeration and solubility studies.

    Compare Incubator Sizes and Prices

    B – Incubator Temperature Control Systems
    (back to chart)

    Lab incubators and environmental test chambers are designed to maintain environmental conditions ideal for growing and storing bacterial and mammalian cell cultures.

    Why Use a CO2 Incubator for Cell Culture?

    CO2 incubators, used primarily to promote human cell growth, maintain a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius and a humidity level of 95% RH. Microbiological incubators are designed to sustain temperatures between 5 degrees and 70 degrees Celsius to accommodate a variety of bacterial, viral and fungal species.

    Refrigerated incubators maintain temperatures up to 40 degrees cooler than ambient conditions for fermentation studies and plant cell cultures.

    C – Incubator Construction Material
    (back to chart)

    C1 – Aluminum Incubators

    Drosophila incubators feature day/night cycling to promote fruit fly germination and include aluminum-clad interior panels for better light refraction throughout the chamber.

    C2 – Epoxy-Coated Steel Incubators

    Epoxy-coated steel resists the most common biocides and alcohol-based disinfectants, but may be prone to corrosion in high humidity environments.

    C3 – Powder-Coated Steel Incubators

    Powder-coated steel represents an economical alternative to stainless steel, resisting most sanitizers and disinfectants. However, the powder coating may crack after prolonged exposure to bleach-based cleaners.

    C4 – Stainless Steel Incubators

    Stainless steel incubators maintain aseptic conditions within the incubator, resist all sanitizers and disinfectants, and will not corrode in high humidity environments.

    D – Environmental Incubator Air Convection Method
    (back to chart)

    D1 – Air Jacket Incubators

    Jacketed CO2 Incubators employ two primary methods of temperature control: water-jacketed and air-jacketed internal plenums. Water-jacketed incubators offer better temperature uniformity but must be drained and cleaned weekly. Air-jacketed models are lighter, easier to transport, and maintenance-free.

    D2 – Dual Convection Incubators

    Dual convection incubators toggle between mechanical and gravity convection modes. Gravity convection models introduce heat, through a heating element, at the bottom of the internal chamber and allow gravity to cause the warmed air to rise throughout the storage area. Mechanical convection systems utilize an internal fan to distribute heated air across the internal chamber.

    D3 – Forced Air Incubators

    Similar to mechanical convection systems, forced air incubator utilize an internal or external blower to distribute heated air throughout the internal chamber. Forced air and mechanical convection incubators boast reduced recovery times after the chamber is accessed, making these designs ideal for high-throughput cell culture labs.

    D4 – Gravity Incubators

    Gravity convection incubators introduce heat into the bottom of the internal chamber and allow gravity to distribute the warmed air across the storage area as it rises. Gravity convection systems maintain lower air change rates than mechanical or forced-air units – ideal for labs storing non-aqueous samples prone to over-drying.

    D5 – Mechanical Incubators

    Mechanical convection incubators yield industry-leading temperature uniformity by utilizing a fan to distribute heated air across the internal chamber. Given their higher air change rate, mechanical convection incubators quickly warm samples transferred from cold storage without evaporating the growth media.

    E – Voltages
    (back to chart)

    E1 – 120 Incubators

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard residential power outlets in the US.

    E2 – 240 Incubators

    240-volt connections require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than appliances designed to operate at 120V.

    F – Special Application Features - Incubator Function in Microbiology
    (back to chart)

    F1 – B.O.D. Incubator Applications

    Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) applications determine the amount of pollution within a water sample by quantifying the oxygen consumed by microorganisms as they decompose organic matter. BOD incubators utilize Peltier coolers to maintain precise temperature uniformity for wastewater treatment, germination studies and plant cultivation.

    View BOD Incubator Specifications

    F2 – Drosophila Culture Incubators

    Drosophila incubators maintain optimal conditions for fruit fly culturing by incorporating day-night light cycling (through an internal LED light), Peltier thermo-cooling (for over-temperature protection), and mechanical convection (for rapid temperature changes).

    F3 – High Security Incubators

    High security incubators utilize restricted access controls, such as fingerprint scanners and keycard readers, to protect high-value samples for clinical diagnostics, recombinant protein production, or gene expression.

    F4 – Small Footprint Incubators

    Compact models with optional stacking kits are ideal for crowded research labs or educational institutions with limited benchtop space.

    F5 – Incubators with Timed On/Off Cycles

    For samples with incubation protocols beyond the standard 48-hour culture cycle, advanced protocol models include digital controllers with timed on/off cycles for real-time sample monitoring.

    F6 – Incubator with UV Lighting

    The two primary methods for incubator chamber disinfection are UV sanitization and high-heat decontamination. Germicidal UV light, emitted at 254 nanometers, denatures microbial genetic material. Incubators with UV lighting are equipped with digital controllers and load presence sensors to prevent samples from UV exposure. High-heat decontamination cycles utilize hot, moist air to sterilize the inner chamber when the incubator is free of samples.

    F7 – Stackable Incubators

    Certain benchtop incubators are compatible with optional stacking kits capable of housing up to three small-footprint units. Stackable units are ideal for crowded labs culturing distinct cell lines that cannot be stored within a single incubator.

    F8 – Remote Cell Culture Monitoring Incubators

    Incubators with remote cell culture monitoring systems allow real-time, visual sample observation through a mobile app or LIMS integration.

    G – Cell Culture Incubator Humidity and Co2 Controls
    (back to chart)

    G1 – CO2 Gas Incubators

    CO2 carbon dioxide incubators use infrared or thermocouple sensors to maintain optimal conditions for cell and tissue culture growth. Optional CO2 alarms alert operators when their gas tank requires replacement.

    G2 – Cell Culture Incubators - Humidity Control Co2 Incubators

    Eukaryotic cells grow optimally at a humidity level of 95% RH. Incubators designed for clinical diagnostics utilize infrared sensors to maintain precise humidity levels to promote human cell growth.

    G3 – O2 Gas Incubators

    For anaerobic cell culturing or hypoxia studies, certain incubators include O2 gas control to reduce oxygen levels within the incubator down to 0.1%.

    Shop CO2 Incubators by Brand

    Shop By Category and Incubator Accessories

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  • Lab Consumables

    Lab Consumables

    Lab consumables including microplates, centrifuge tubes, purification and isolation kits, inoculating loops and biohazard bags.
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  • Liquid Handlers & Robotics

    Liquid Handlers & Robotics

    Liquid handling and robotic instruments from Hudson for ELISA assays, PCR preparation, DNA quantitation, serial dilutions and microplate washing
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  • Lyophilizers

    Lyophilizers

    Labconco FreeZone Lyophilizers freeze dry samples for transport and long-term storage.Lyophilizer Features Overview
    Labconco FreeZone Freeze Dryers, lyophilizers

    Special Application FeaturesCollector TemperatureFormatVoltageCollector Chamber MaterialCollector SizeCollector SizeLabconco FreeZone 4.5L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 6L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 8L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 12L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 18L Freeze DryerLabconco FreeZone 2.5L Freeze Dryer

    What is Lyophilization?

    Lyophilization, or freeze drying, is a common technique used in the pharmaceutical and food industries to vacuum freeze samples for long-term, ambient storage.

    How Does a Lyophilizer Freeze Dryer Work?

    Freeze-drying equipment uses sublimation to remove water, or common solvents such as methanol or acetonitrile, from a pre-frozen product. Sublimation occurs when a frozen aqueous sample moves directly from a solid to a gaseous state, without passing through the liquid phase.

    Advantages of Lyophilization

    By avoiding the liquid phase, the process of sublimation ensures the yield of a stable product that can be stored outside of a freezer and reconstituted for processing years into the future.

    Continue: Advantages of Lyophilization for Long-Term Sample Storage

    Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Lyophilizer Applications Include:

    • Manufacturing Active Pharmaceutical Product Ingredients (APIs)
    • Increase shelf life of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and lab samples
    • Parenteral formulations and injections
    • Increase stability of therapeutic proteins (monoclonal antibodies)
    • Freeze drying for long term storage of dry powder with live microorganisms (probiotics / bacteria)

    A - Lyophilizer Collector Coil Temperature
    (back to chart)

    The lyophilizer collector coil acts as a cold trap to collect moisture vapor eluting from the frozen product. To ensure the effective capture of sample vapor during sublimation, the collection coil must maintain a temperature of 15 – 20 degrees colder than the sample’s freezing point.

    Aqueous Only

    Freeze dry systems for aqueous samples have a working temperature of -50°C. Benchtop and console Lyophilizers are available in a range of capacities.

    Low Eutectic Point

    Freeze dry systems for low eutectic point samples have a working temperature of -86°C. Benchtop and console Lyophilizers are available in a range of capacities.

    (Optional: Solvent & Collector Freezing Points: Table Shown Here)

    A1 - 50 Degrees Celsius Lyophilizer Dry Freezers

    A collector coil cooling to -50 degrees is optimal for freeze drying aqueous samples stored in DI or nuclease-free water.

    View Price: FreeZone 18 Liter -50C Console Freeze Dryers by Labconco

    A2 - 84 Degrees Celsius Lyophilizer Dry Freezers

    A collector coil cooling to -84 degrees is ideal for low eutectic point samples stored in DI water or acetonitrile.

    View Price: FreeZone 2.5 Liter -84C Benchtop Freeze Dryers

    A3 - 105 Degrees Celsius Lyophilizer Dry Freezers

    A collector coil cooling to -105 degrees is optimal for low eutectic point samples stored in methanol or ethanol.

    B - Lyophilizer Collector Size (Capacity)
    (back to chart)

    The collector size lists the ice holding capacity, in liters, housed by the system during a single run. The maximum sample volume, per session, is 50% of the ice holding capacity.

    Benchtop systems with capacities of 2.5 liters, 4.5 liters, and 8 liters are optimal for light to moderate sample loads.

    Free-standing systems, with 6-liter, 12-liter, and 18-liter capacities are appropriate for large sample loads or numerous batches.

    Browse Lyophilizers by Ice Holding Capacity

    C - Lyophilizer Collector Chamber Material
    (back to chart)

    C1 - PTFE Lyophilization Chamber

    PTFE-Coated Collector Coils and Chambers are recommended for lyophilization processes involving corrosive compounds.

    C1 - Stainless Steel Lyophilizer Chamber

    Stainless steel Lyophilizer Chambers and Collector Coils are optimal for lyophilization processes involving non-corrosive compounds.

    F - Lyophilizer Bulk Trays, Flasks, Tubes and Accessories
    (back to chart)

     

    F1 - Lyophilizer Stoppering Tray Dryers

    Labconco Stoppering Tray Dryers are ideal for batch drying operations involving pre-frozen samples from the same, or similar, production lot; the vessels are placed in a tray dryer to ensure uniform conditions. Although slight variations in drying conditions may be experienced for samples located near the clear front door of the tray dryer, the samples are heated under the same protocol and conditions to ensure maximum uniformity.

    View: Labconco Freezone Stoppering Tray Dryers

    F2 - Lyophilizer Freeze Dryer Flask Manifolds

    Manifold drying provides a flexible alternative to tray drying for small volume samples with high eutectic and collapsed temperatures, vials, ampules, or frost-free flasks. Manifolds are connected to individual ports on the manifold after the pre-frozen samples are removed from a storage freezer or low-temperature water bath. Manifold systems accommodate vessels of different sizes to allow drying of multiple products or batches during a single run. As each vessel has a direct connection to the collector, manifold drying is more efficient than tray drying.

    Compare: Purge Valve | Mini Chamber Purge Valve

    F3 - Bulk Lyophilizer Freeze Drying Chambers

    For stable products resistant to changes in moisture or oxygen levels, bulk drying chambers permit precise control of temperature and heat input. Rather than drying products sealed in individual vessels, bulk drying involves spreading the products across the surface area of a shelf or tray. As heat is transferred to the samples through conduction from the shelf or tray, the product must be spread across the area to a uniform thickness to prevent changes in heating rates. Bulk drying is not suitable for samples prone to cross-contamination or changes in atmospheric conditions.

    Lyophilizer Chamber Sizes and Dimensions:

    F4 - Lyophilizer End Point Detection

    Determining the primary drying end point for each sample can be a challenge. Once the vessel is free of ice residue, the drying of samples located at the edge of the container is complete. To ensure that the center of the product has completed the drying process, an electronic vacuum gauge is used to measure the condensable gasses in the closed system. When the electronic gauge displays a pressure equal to the minimum level attainable by the system, the sample contains no more water vapor.

    Labconco Freeze Dryers

    Labconco’s End Zone system provides an alert when sample moisture levels have reached user-selected criteria, taking all of the guesswork out of end point determination.

    Labconco’s Lyo-Works operating system, included on each FreeZone model, provides an audible alarm and automated email to each user when sample end points are reached.

    Compare Online: Labconco Free Dryer Pricing

    F5 - Lyophilization Remote Monitoring Dry Freezer Conditions

    While freeze drying runs can extend well beyond normal working hours, remote system monitoring is crucial to ensure system efficiency. Labconco’s Lyo-Works operating system, standard on all FreeZone models, provides users with real-time sample conditions, including vacuum levels and collector temperature. Sample status updates are provided by email to each selected user when runs are completed, the drying end point is determined, and system parameters change.

    Lyophilizer Setup and Installation

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHy_pB8GIwg

    Where Can I Buy a Lyophilizer Dry Freezer?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com offers carefully selected lines of Labconco dry freezers. Through our worldwide network of reps, we supply some of the largest research and production facilities in the world. Laboratory-Equipment.com is a laboratory speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets.

    Contact a Laboratory Equipment Specialist for assistance with technical questions, consultative sales, and selection and configuration of a product to fit your needs. Representatives are available Mon - Fri, 09:00 AM - 08:00 PM your local time, via phone, email, or live web chat.

    Shop Lyophilizer Dry Freezers, Chambers, and Accessories

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  • Microarray Products

    Microarray Products

    Arrayit microarray fluorescence and colorimetric scanners, printers and hybridization stations for DNA/RNA assays, genetic testing, proteomics and drug discovery
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  • Microplate Equipment

    Microplate Equipment

    Benchtop microplate sealers, washers and readers by ACTGene, Accuris, Perkin Elmer and Vitl
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  • Mills

    Mills

    Benchtop lab mills from IKA for grinding, cutting and homogenization of hard, brittle, fibrous or soft materials.Lab Mill Features Overview
    M 20 Universal Batch Mill Grinding Chamber

    Special FeaturesMotor OutputFeed Grain DiameterVolumeCooling MethodFeed HardnessMaximum SpeedMaximum SpeedIKA MF 10IKA Tube MillIKA M 20IKA A11

    Laboratory mills, or laboratory mill grinders, utilize mechanical force to pulverize non-homogenous, batch samples into smaller, representative, homogenous samples for analytical and quality control testing. Mills are composed of a grinding element, such as a beater or cutting blade, housed within a stainless steel or disposable plastic milling chamber. The grinding element is connected to a high-speed motor regulated by a timer or digital controller.

    What are Laboratory Mills Used For?

    Lab grinding mills are designed to accommodate a variety of grinding elements for samples with different physical properties: dry, elastic, wet, hard, brittle and fibrous.

    Impact mills are optimal for grinding hard, brittle or dried feed materials, such as grain, barley, cellulose, pharmaceuticals, resins and seeds.

    Cutting mills are optimal for grinding elastic, fibrous, and soft feed materials, such as spices, hops, paper, plastics, and roots. Jaw crushers utilize a fixed and movable jaw for high-pressure crushing of glass and coal.

    Analytical mills are commonly used for impact grinding of frozen food and vegetation.

    Mortar grinders are used to pulverize dry or suspended organic samples, like homogenized pastes or creams.

    Bead mills are optimal for shearing cell and tissue culture sample preparations.

    A - Laboratory Mill Feed Sample Hardness
    (back to chart)

    The Mohs Hardness Scale charts the relative hardness, or scratch resistance, of various materials from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest). The hardness test is typically performed by pressing a loaded indenter object onto the surface of the test material to measure the size of the lasting impression. Examples of 5-Mohs materials include bone, iron, enamel, glass and titanium. Common 6-Mohs materials include steel, silica, porcelain, and zirconium.

    B - Feed Grain Sample Diameter
    (back to chart)

    The particle size, or grain diameter, of the sample material governs the selection of the appropriate laboratory mill.

    IKA’s M20 model specializes in pulverizing small-particle samples up to 7mm in diameter while IKA’s MF10 system accommodates large-particle samples up to 10mm in diameter.

    7 mm

    10 mm

    C - Maximum Laboratory Mill Speed
    (back to chart)

    The maximum grinding speed, stated in revolutions per minute (RPM), defines the optimal sample types for each mill.

    IKA’s MF10 models have a speed range of 3,000 to 6,500 rpm, designed for pharmacy samples, like vitamins, tablets, and roots, as well as rubbers and plastics.

    IKA M20 models maintain a fixed speed of 20,000 rpm for pulverizing grain, seeds, ceramics, salt and active carbon.

    IKA Tube Mills feature a speed range of 5,000 to 25,000 rpm, crushes stems, leaves, tobacco, ginger, flowers, drug capsules and enzyme powder.

    IKA A11 models have a fixed speed of 28,000 rpm to grind cellulose, resin, animal feed, spices, coal and detergents.

    6500 rpm

    28000 rpm

    25000 rpm

    20000 rpm

    D - Laboratory Mill Cooling Method
    (back to chart)

    Effective sample preparation prior to milling ensures maximal grinding efficiency and mitigates instrument wear-and-tear. Elastic or fibrous samples, such as rubber and plant materials, are frozen over dry ice prior to grinding. Biological samples, such as nucleic acids and proteins, are cryogenically frozen in liquid nitrogen before milling. To prevent damage to the unit, wet samples are passively cooled and dried before milling to prevent adhesion to grinding elements.

    E - Laboratory Mill Volume

    Low-throughput models are designed to accommodate sample volumes down to 40 ml while high-throughput models process samples up to 250 ml in volume.

    40 ml

    80 ml

    250 ml

    F - Laboratory Mill Motor Output
    (back to chart)

    IKA’s portfolio of laboratory mills and grinders include low-power models with 80-Watt motors and high-power models with 500-Watt motors. IKA’s standard units include protection mechanisms such as emergency-stop switches, overheating alarms, and grinding enclosures to prevent operator exposure.

    80W

    100W

    260W

    500W

    G - Special Laboratory Grinding Features
    (back to chart)

    G1 - Lab Mills with Adjustable Speed Controls

    Certain models include rotary dials to adjust current mixing speed, target mixing speed, and mixing time.

    IKA Tube Mill Control includes a touch-screen keypad and LED display of real-time mixing conditions.

    G2 - GMP Compliant Lab Mills

    IKA M20 mill includes a removable, easy-to-clean, steel grinding chamber and USB interface for safe data export.

    G3 - Enclosed Mill Grinding Chamber

    IKA Tube Mill Control includes an enclosed, plastic grinding chamber for sample and operator protection. The disposable grinding chamber can be removed and used for long-term sample storage.

    Where Can I Buy Laboratory Mills and Grinding Equipment Mills Online?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of laboratory mills and grinders for impact, cutting, analysis, beads, and mortar.

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  • Ovens & Furnaces

    Ovens & Furnaces

    Lab ovens and furnaces by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sheldon and Binder include advanced protocol and security models as well as high-temperature furnaces suitable for semiconductor processing
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  • Mixers & Rockers

    Mixers & Rockers

    Mixers, rockers, rollers and rotators for 2-D and 3-D mixing of reagents, and samples in tubes, flasks, beakers, blot trays and microplatesMixer Features Overview
    Laboratory rockers

    Special FeaturesControllerFormatCollector TemperatureVoltageCollector SizeCollector Chamber MaterialBenchmark BenchWaver 3DBenchmark Everlast 247Benchmark Rotisserie Rotating MixerBenchmark BenchRocker 3DBenchmark BenchRocker 2DBenchmark TubeRollerBenchmark RotoBotBenchmark Roto-ThermBenchmark BenchBlotterBenchmark BlotBloyBenchmark BioMixerBenchmark Roto-MiniBenchmark TubeRockerNext Advance Freedom RockerThermo Fisher Compact Mini RotatorThermo Fisher Compact Waving Rotator

    Laboratory mixers consist of an oscillating, motorized platform, designed to hold flasks, beakers, or tubes, installed onto a stabilizing base and connected to an analog or digital controller to regulate the movement and speed of the platform.

    Unlike high-speed lab shakers or vortexers, which mix samples in orbital or vortex motions, mixers gently agitate samples in linear rocking, tilting or rotating motions. Commonly used in molecular biology or biochemistry labs, mixers are ideal for gel staining, western blotting, or hybridization assays.

    A - Laboratory Rollers, Rockers, Mixers, and Blotters
    (back to chart)

    A1 - Laboratory Blotter

    Optimal for western blot washing or gel staining, blotters gently oscillate, on a 2-dimensional plane, at 10 – 12 rpm to protect the integrity of the gel or membrane. Large optional stacking platforms accommodate multiple gel boxes or blot trays at a single time.

    A2 - Laboratory Mixer

    Combining the design of a rocker and a shaker, lab mixers maintain a 3-dimensional motion at higher speeds (up to 300 rpm) than lab rockers. Standard mixers include a broad array of platform clamps and tube racks to hold Erlenmeyer flasks, graduated cylinders, beakers, reservoirs, test tubes and conical vials.

    A3 - Laboratory Rocker

    Laboratory rockers employ a gentle tilting or rocking motion, in 2- or 3-dimensions, to mix samples at speeds of 30 – 80 rpm. Certain rockers include controllers to adjust the mixing speed or the tilting position of samples. For cell culture or proteomics applications, standard rockers are designed to operate within incubators, cold rooms or walk-in refrigerators.

    A4 - Laboratory Roller

    Laboratory tube rollers produce a wave effect to ensure thorough mixing of specimens housed in blood collection tubes or roller bottles. Optimal for clinical laboratories and outpatient clinics,

    A5 - Laboratory Rotator

    Laboratory Rotators move in a tumbling motion to thoroughly mix genomics or biochemistry samples. Compatible with a wide range of tube holders, rotators are designed to mix samples in vertical or horizontal orientations.

    Compare by Rotator Style

    Fixed Speed Rotators

    Variable Speed Rotators

    A6 - Laboratory Rotisserie Mixer

    Rotisserie mixers, like Benchmark’s RotoBot, agitate samples in a vertical spinning motion at a variety of mixing speeds and tilt angles. Designed for homogenous dispersion, rotisserie mixers include holders for test tubes, snap-top tubes, and conical vials.

    B - Maximum Blotter, Roller, and Mixer Speed
    (back to chart)

    Blotters and tube rollers maintain fixed or variable mixing speeds up to 40 rpm for gentle agitation of blood samples, gel stains, or Southern blots. Rockers and rotators mix samples at 80 rpm for binding assays or cell resuspension. Mixers attain speeds up to 300 rpm for vigorous agitation of growth media, reagents or proteomics samples.

    C - Laboratory Rocker and Mixer Configuration
    (back to chart)

    C1 - Variable Speed Mixers

    Benchmark’s Everlast 247 models include variable speed controllers to adjust mixing levels for different sample types. Advanced controllers include timers, over-speed alarms, user-configured programs, and self-calibration.

    C2 - Fixed Speed Laboratory Rockers

    Benchmark’s BlotBoy Rockers, include fixed-speed systems for defined applications, such as gel staining or blood sample processing.

    D - Lab Equipment Voltage
    (back to chart)

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

    240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

    E - Rocker and Mixer Motion Type
    (back to chart)

    E1 - 1-Dimensional Laboratory Rollers

    Benchmark’s Tube Rollers are designed to oscillate the platform on a single plane, moving samples back-and-forth across metal rollers.

    1-Dimensional Rollers

    E2 - 2-Dimensional Laboratory Rockers

    Benchmark’s BenchBlotter fixed rockers allow the tilting angle of the platform to adjust, supporting 2-dimensional mixing on the x- and y-axis.

    2-Dimensional Rockers

    E3 - 3-Dimensional Laboratory Mixers and Wavers

    Benchmark’s BenchWaver and BioMixer are high-speed mixers and wavers that support 3-dimensional mixing in a rocking or orbital motion.

    3-Dimensional Wavers and Mixers

    F - Lab Mixer Controllers
    (back to chart)

    Analog lab mixers and rockers include hand-dials to alter mixing speeds and timers with audible alarms.

    Digital lab mixers and rockers Models with digital controllers adjust tilting angles and mixing speeds, save user-defined programs, and export data.

    G - Special Lab Mixer Features and Accessories
    (back to chart)

    G1 - Laboratory Incubator Mixers

    Benchmark’s Roto-Therm maintains temperatures from 5°C - 60°C for gentle mixing of mammalian or bacterial cell culture samples.

    G2 - Laboratory Tube Holders

    Thermo Fisher’s Compact Digital Mini Rotator offers interchangeable tube holders to accommodate flasks, beakers, graduated cylinders, test tubes, centrifuge tubes, conical vials, and ampules.

    G3 - Automated Laboratory Dispensing Blotters

    Next Advance’s Freedom Rocker BlotBot includes an automated delivery system for dispensing and removal of reagents, buffer and cell media. Digital programming allows users to define washing protocols and adjust dispensing volumes, rocking speeds, and mixing times.

    Where Can I Buy Laboratory Rockers and Mixers Online?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a speciality division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab mixing equipment including rockers, shakers, and stirrers. Browse a curated list of products for applications including general laboratory, research, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

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  • Moisture Analyzers

    Moisture Analyzers

    Moisture Analyzers from Sartorius for analysis of food, pharmaceutical and environmental samples.Moisture Analyzer Features Overview
    Large Memory Capacity and Method Development

    WeighingTemperature RangeReadabilityVoltageMemory CapacityData TransferHeating ProgramsSartorius MA160Sartorius MA37

    What is a Moisture Analyzer?

    Moisture analyzers, or moisture balances, determine the moisture content in a sample by measuring the amount of weight a sample loses as it dries.

    What Are Moisture Analyzers Used For?

    Commonly used to test food samples, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, building materials, and animal feed, moisture analyzers determine the quality, concentration, purity, shelf life and stability of raw materials and final products.

    Moisture Analyzer Heating Methods - Halogen vs Infrared Lamps

    Moisture analyzers dry the sample using either an infrared (IR) or halogen heat lamp.

    Halogen Heating Method

    Models with halogen heating lamps are optimal for samples requiring rapid drying and high repeatability.

    IR Heating Method

    Moisture balances with infrared heating lamps are an economical alternative to halogen-lamp models. Since IR lamps take longer to heat, they are optimal for samples prone to scorching due to rapid temperature changes.

    A - Moisture Analyzer Weighing Capacity
    (back to chart)

    The weighing capacity is the maximum sample weight, listed in grams, which the moisture analyzer can process during a single run.

    Sartorius’ MA 37 moisture analyzers, optimal for small-scale R&D or food sample quality control, accommodates solids or pastes up to 60 grams in weight.

    Sartorius’ MA 160 models are idealare, ideal for analytical chemistry labs and supportand, support samples up to 200 grams.

    B - Moisture Analyzer Temperature Range
    (back to chart)

    Standard moisture analyzers commonly feature a temperature range of 40°C to 120°C.

    However, the Sartorius MA 37 and MA 160 models utilize a 600-Watt infrared AURI unit to heat samples to 160°C and 200°C respectively.

    View Online: Sartorius MA 37

    View Online: Sartorius MA 160

    PDF: The New MA37 Moisture Analyzer for Daily Routine Operation

    C - Moisture Analyzer Readability
    (back to chart)

    Readability represents the smallest denominator at which a weight can be measured by the moisture analyzer. Industry standard readability values vary from 0.1 mg to 100 mg.

    D - Moisture Analyzer Voltage
    (back to chart)

    120-volt connections are suitable for standard laboratory power outlets in the United States.

    240-volt connections, common in Mainland Europe, require less current (amperage) and smaller conductors than equipment designed to operate at 120-volt.

    E - Moisture Analyzer Memory Capacity
    (back to chart)

    Sartorius’ MA 37 and MA 160 moisture analyzers include on-board software capable of storing saved programs and a library system to organize and quickly reference stored protocols. The software automatically stores the last 999 measurements for easy retrieval or export.

    F - Moisture Analyzer Data Transfer
    (back to chart)

    Method and measurement data are stored by the Sartorius MA 37 and MA 160 moisture balances for export via SD card, mini-USB connection (for import to Excel or LIMS), and GLP-compliant printing.

    G - Moisture Analyzer Heating Programs
    (back to chart)

    G1 - Standard Moisture Analyzer Drying

    Standard IR moisture drying programs are optimal for samples unaffected by rapid temperature changes. As standard drying protocols run faster than delicate drying protocols, they are ideal for high-throughput labs processing large quantities of daily samples.

    G2 - Gentle Moisture Analyzer Drying

    Gentle moisture drying programs are optimal for combustible samples or specimens sensitive to rapid temperature changes. During gentle drying, the measurement time is extended to account for a slower ramp-up cycle to reach target temperature.

    Where Can I Buy Moisture Analyzers Online?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served the life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, semiconductor, aerospace and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop laboratory moisture analyzers online for a wide variety of food, pharmaceutical, laboratory, and analytical environments.

    Contact a Laboratory-equipment.com specialist through web chat, email, or phone for pricing or a same-day quote.

    U.S. Customer Service

    Email: [email protected]

    Phone: (714) 578-6016

    International Sales and Customer Service

    Phone: (714) 578-6100

    Compare Sartorius Laboratory Moisture Analyzers

    Sartorius MA160

    Sartorius MA37

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  • Overhead Stirrers

    Overhead Stirrers

    IKA Overhead Stirrers perform a range of mixing tasks for volumes from 15 to 200L; available with a wide range of stirring elementsStirrer Features Overview
    Laboratory overhead stirrers

    ApplicationMaximum SpeedMaximum ViscosityCapacityApplication-Specific FeaturesIKA RW 47IKA RW 28IKA RW 20IKA EUROSTAR 200IKA EUROSTAR 100IKA EUROSTAR 60IKA EUROSTAR 40IKA EUROSTAR 20

    Laboratory Stirrers Comparison Chart

    Overhead stirrers consist of a stirring fixture, or stand, a digital controller, a drive shaft, and a motor for mixing viscous solutions. Overhead stirrers are used for a broad range of mixing applications including tissue grinding, cell media preparation, wastewater purification, formulation of polymers, adhesives, and coatings.

    Optional lab stirrer accessories include propeller blades, dissolvers, head clamps, manual chucks, telescoping stands, and shaft protectors.

    Factory-fitted quick adapters, or chucks, support quick shaft replacement for labs processing a wide range of sample viscosities.

    Digital controllers include programmable functions, overload protection alarms, mixing speed adjustment, data export and third-party software integration.

    A - Application
    (back to chart)

    A1 - General Mixing

    General overhead mixing stirrers, such as the IKA EUROSTAR 40 models, are ideal for mixing low viscosity liquids below 7,000 mPas (millipascal-seconds). Applications include cell media preparation or soft tissue grinding for drug development.

    A2 - High Viscosity Liquids

    High-viscosity overhead stirrers, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 100, include interchangeable blades and drive shafts to ensure thorough stirring or homogenization. Ideal for mixing solutions above 7,000 mPas (millipascal-seconds), such as polymers, plastics, adhesives, glues and coatings.

    B - Maximum Speed
    (back to chart)

    Listed in revolutions per minute (rpm), standard overhead stirrers carry a user-adjustable mixing speed range between 30 – 1,500 rpm. However, high-speed models, such as IKA’s EUROSTAR 20, maintain speeds up to 2,000 rpm for low-volume mixing (under 15 ml).

    C - Maximum Viscosity
    (back to chart)

    Max-viscosity stirrers, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 200, are designed to mix solutions up to 150,000 mPas. The dynamic viscosity, reported in millipascal-seconds (mPas), refers to the thickness of the fluid during mixing. As batch solutions may increase in viscosity during the stirring process, the maximum viscosity specification of the overhead stirrer must meet or exceed the highest attainable dynamic viscosity of the solution.

    D - Lab Stirrer Capacity
    (back to chart)

    Capacity refers to the maximum volume of fluid, reported in liters, safely and effectively mixed by the overhead stirrer. Unless otherwise noted in the manufacturer specifications, the maximum volume assumes the liquid to be water.

    High-volume overhead stirrers, like IKA’s RW47, are designed to homogenize up to 200 liters of fluid.

    E - Application-Specific Lab Stirrer Features
    (back to chart)

    E1 - Wireless Lab Stirrer Controller

    IKA’s EUROSTAR overhead stirrers include a wireless digital controller featuring automatic speed adjustment, programmable functions, multilingual display, timed interval operation, lock/unlock modes, and integrated temperature measurement.

    E2 - Reversible Stirring

    Reversible stirring models, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 100, are designed to rotate the stirring shaft in clockwise (standard) and counter-clockwise (reversible) directions. For highly-viscous solutions, reversible stirring ensures the fluid is thoroughly mixed.

    E3 - Lab Stirrer Overload Protection

    Stirrers with overload or overheat protection, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 60, automatically shut down if conditions fall outside of the operating range. Overload protection guards the motor and electronics from heat-related damage during continuous-duty mixing.

    E4 - Lab Stirrer Software Integration

    Digital overhead stirrers, like IKA’s EUROSTAR 200, include controllers with data export functions compatible with third-party software, such as laboratory information management systems (LIMS). Password-protected profiles and secure data export operations are optimal for cGMP facilities.

    Where Can I Buy Laboratory Stirrers and Shakers Online?

    Laboratory-Equipment.com is a specialty division of Terra Universal. For nearly 40 years, Terra Universal has served semiconductor, aerospace, life science, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device markets. Customers appreciate a worldwide network of reps, factory-direct support, and ready-to-ship items available from Terra's manufacturing and warehouse facilities in Fullerton, California.

    Shop online to compare pricing, features, and selection for a wide variety of lab stirrer and shaker equipment for applications including general laboratory, PCR, DNA/RNA techniques, ELISA, protein analysis, and cell culture.

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  • Pipettes

    Pipettes

    Mechanical and electronic pipettes and tips from Sartorius Biohit. Single-channel and multi-channel pipettors available for immediate shipment.
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  • Refrigerators & Freezers

    Refrigerators & Freezers

    Refrigerators, freezers, and combo refrigerator/freezers by Thermo Fisher, Helmer, Marvel and Benchmark Scientific
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  • Shakers & Vortexers

    Shakers & Vortexers

    Incubated, refrigerated, orbital and reciprocating shakers and vortexers by Thermo Fisher, Benchmark Scientific and VITL
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  • Spectrophotometers & Analytical Equipment

    Spectrophotometers & Analytical Equipment

    Spectrophotometers, microscopy, FTIR and AA systems from Perkin Elmer, Biochrom and Hudson Robotics.
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  • PCR Thermal Cyclers

    PCR Thermal Cyclers

    qPCR and standard PCR thermal cyclers from Analytik Jena and Biometra for robust amplification of nucleic acid sequences
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  • Water Purification

    Water Purification

    Water purifications systems and accessories from Barnstead Thermo Fisher produce ASTM Type 1, 2 and 3 grade water
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  • Visit TerraUniversal.com

    Visit TerraUniversal.com

    Source your cleanroom equipment and critical environment solutions from our trusted sister site.

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Lab instruments, equipment and supplies from trusted brands

Laboratory-Equipment provides innovative, quality scientific research equipment from top-tier suppliers, including Thermo Fisher, Labconco, Sartorius, PerkinElmer, IKA, Sheldon, Binder and Benchmark Scientific.

Our comprehensive portfolio includes:

Equipment:  baths, cold storage, centrifuges, furnaces, hot plates, incubators, mixers, ovens, refrigerators, shakers, water purity systems and more

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