Cleanrooms

  1. FFU Costs for an Energy Efficient Cleanroom

    FFU Costs for an Energy Efficient Cleanroom

    A HEPA fan filter unit (FFU) is a crucial component of every cleanroom environment. Making the correct decision as to which type of FFU is the most appropriate for your application is not something to simply gloss over. There are two main categories of motorized fan filter units: permanent split capacitors (PSC) and electronically commutated motors (ECM). Both types of fan filter modules provide a perfunctory standard for any cleanroom, but differ by way of efficiency, durability and cost. PSC systems save you money upfront and are ideal for small, consistent projects. However, when considering longer endeavors, especially those with ever-changing circumstances, the ECM will pay for itself with energy savings. For instance, in California at an average of 14.47 cents per kilowatt hour, you would make the difference between the higher upfront costs of the ECM over the PSC bac

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  2. How Fan Filter Units Fight COVID-19

    How Fan Filter Units Fight COVID-19

    In addition to face masks, properly maintained air filters remain crucial in confined indoor spaces to help mitigate the spread of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 virus). Both HEPA filters and ULPA filters reduce the number of microscopic particles in the air, which can keep air safe to breathe in places it’s needed most like hospitals, isolation rooms and crowded indoor areas.

    COVID-19 virus spreads through the air on respiratory droplets created from talking, coughing, sneezing, and even breathing. When these activities occur in a populated space with stale air, the likelihood of transmission can significantly increase, as COVID-19 has been proven to remain viable for at least 3 hours lingering in the air or on surfaces up to four meters away from its last host.

    Masks and social distancing significantly reduce the chance of the virus’s spread

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  3. 304 and 316 Stainless Steel Equipment for Laboratory and Cleanroom Operations

    The last thing you need is your lab equipment rusting out on you. When considering your specific application needs for new stainless steel equipment, a recurring question in the market remains—what’s the difference between 304 and 316? When should you consider 316? In scenarios demanding the utmost vigilance, you may discover you require 316L stainless steel.

    304 Stainless steel is composed of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. 316 Stainless steel is made up of chromium and nickel at 16% and 10% respectively, but also includes molybdenum—a silvery-white metal that’s highly resistant to corrosion.

    316L Stainless steel contains the same corrosion-resistant materials as 316, but includes the added benefit of a lower carbon content—eliminating the opportunity for excessive metallic contamination and making cracking less likely. Both 316 and 316L are able to withstand chlorides and chlorinated solutions, such as Spor-Klenz® and Isopropyl Acetate

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  4. Air Shower Protection for Cannabis Grow Rooms

    Air showers are chambers or tunnels used to decontaminate personnel via air jets as they enter or exit a cleanroom. By using pressurized jet nozzle air streams, air showers blow contaminating particles away from people or items that enter, then filter pollutants and redirect the clean air out of the chamber. The showers are placed at the entrances of cleanrooms or other controlled environments to secure the biggest potential containment breach, minimizing the danger to workers or products.

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  5. Cleanroom Design that Terra Recommends

    Terra Universal will certify its cleanrooms to guarantee “as built” compliance with cleanliness standards. What matters, though, is how the cleanroom performs in real world applications—in your application, with your personnel and processing equipment.

    Careful consideration of these operating conditions will help you select the configuration that meets your requirements and fits your budget!

    Cost vs. Coverage: Evaluating FFU Placement

    The cleanest modular cleanroom incorporates filter/fan units (FFUs) in every 2' x 4' (610 mm x 1219 mm) ceiling bay. This near-100% ceiling coverage provides a laminar flow of filtered air to quickly remove contaminants from the cleanroom, meeting ISO 3 or ISO 4 (Federal Standard 209(E) Class 1 or Class 10) environments (depending on the filter types selected, HEPA or ULPA).

    Of course, 100% ceiling coverage requires substantial investme

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  6. Static Dissipative PVC vs Acrylic

    Static Dissipative PVC vs Acrylic

    Hidden Costs of Acrylic Enclosures

    Static control arrow

    Compared to acrylic, static-dissipative PVC offers three benefits that reduce operating expenses and drive down overall ownership cost of a clean room, glove box, hood, desiccator, or other enclosure.

    Contamination Control

    Acrylic is a prolific static generator. The back-and-forth motion of wiping an acrylic surface creates positive and negative surface charges that attract and hold small particles.

    The resulting static cling makes it difficult to remove contaminants from the charged surfaces without the use of ionizing equipment or frequent cleaning with special anti-static solutions. Variations in the surface charges can lead to unpred

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  7. FS209E and ISO Cleanroom Standards

    Terra Universal is the leading expert in the design and fabrication of critical-environment applications. We offer a complete range of equipment, furnishing and supplies for cleanrooms and laboratories. The following are the rigorous standards to which Terra Universal adheres.

    Before global cleanroom classifications and standards were adopted by the International Standards Organization (ISO), the U.S. General Service Administration’s standards (known as FS209E) were applied virtually worldwide. However, as the need for international standards grew, the ISO established a technical committee and several working groups to delineate its own set of standards.

    FS209E contains six classes, while the ISO 14644-1 classification system adds two cleaner standards and one dirtier standard (see chart below). The "cleanest" cleanroom in FS209E is referred to as Class 1; the "dirtiest" cleanroom is a

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  8. USP Compounding Cleanroom Construction, Panels, and Control Systems

    USP Compounding Cleanroom Construction, Panels, and Control Systems

    Pharmacy compounders have a lot of factors to consider when making the decision to go into the business of mixing individual prescriptions, particularly those considered “hazardous.” It can be a lucrative operation, but one which is closely overseen. For good reason, though: mistakes in the recent past have taught us that sloppy procedures, partly resulting from a lack of regulations, can have deadly consequences.

    Once you’ve make the commitment to move forward with your compounding pharmacy business model, you have to understand your responsibilities (and the associated costs) regarding equipment and furnishings. What used to be true for minimum “engineering controls” is no longer good enough, and regulators will make sure that pharmacies comply.

     Click here for more USP resources. Find out what is required, base

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  9. BioSafe’s Extreme-Clean Glass Room

    BioSafe’s Extreme-Clean Glass Room

    Particles, particles everywhere! What is a lab to do? Sources of these contaminating specks are many: equipment, room materials, unfiltered air, bacteria and mold, clothing, and (the biggest culprit of all) people. Facilities make heroic efforts to keep the adulterants at bay, but some amount of contaminants will find their way into the controlled space.

     

    Until processes become fully automated, personnel will still need to step into cleanrooms to perform application-specific tasks and service equipment. Best practices guide these workers, but it’s impossible to contain every particle that’s just begging to float around the room or land on surfaces.

    Control pane
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  10. Explosion-Proof Cleanroom for High-Risk Applications

    Explosion-Proof Cleanroom for High-Risk Applications

    Flammable gasses and vapors possess the potential to cause devastating damage to personnel, property and the environment. To minimize this danger, organizations including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) develop standards, such as the National Electric Code (NEC), by which many industries operate. Explosions still occur, but damage can be minimized by using documented protocol for managing them. Companies involved with pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, fuel, chemical manufacturing, food manufacturing, aviation, and other high-risk applications have to abide by these established safety practices.

     

    In each group of flammable-material type (gas/vapor, powder or fiber) the NEC categorizes risky environments based on this basic formula: material’s duration of use + its flammability potential = likelihood for fire.  Equipment is designed

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