Gel electrophoresis allows for the separation of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) and proteins based on their size. Electrophoresis is used by labs studying vaccines, medications, forensics, DNA profiling or other life science applications. The technique is also used in industry such as mining or food sciences.
Gel electrophoresis utilizes a porous gel matrix through which proteins or nucleic acids migrate. Both nucleic acids and proteins possess a net-negative electrical charge, a property that is leveraged to facilitate the migration of the desired molecule through the medium.
The gel box features a cathode at one end and an anode at the other. The box is filled with an ionic buffer, which creates an electric field when a charge is applied. Since the proteins and nucleic acids have a uniformly negative charge, the molecules will migrate towards the positive electrode. The speed of this migration is dependent on how easily the molecules move through the pores of